itself signified the special, and temporary, nature of these developments.
Nonetheless such changes were remarkable, and as departures from the
norm they raised expectations and created their own tensions.
Something of the contradictory nature of wartime change and of the
tensions left unresolved were captured by Woodrow Wilson in a comment
to his secretary.
The war by revealing the close relationship between the individual and
the state has taught us many things we did not previously know about
national economy and efficiency at the same time stimulating the opportunities for individual achievement and development.
The president went on to identify one of the chief areas of conflict still
remaining when he said "measures of co-ordination as between capital
and labor can no longer be evaded,"
46 for labor, like business, had grown
during the war and was now a force with which to be reckoned. It
remained to be seen whether the state would continue wartime policies
and intervene to provide the necessary coordination between these opposing forces in the postwar period or revert to a more traditional position of
Mark Sullivan, Our Times: The United States 1900-1925 ( New York and London, 1933), V, 489; Charles and
Mary Beard, The Rise of American
Civilization ( New York, 1929), III, 636; Samuel Morison and
Henry Steele Commager
, The Growth of the American Republic ( New York, 1950), 469-71.
George Soule, Prosperity Decade: A Chapter from American Economic
History 1917-1929 ( London: 1947), 4; Robert D. Cuff, The War Industries
Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I ( Baltimore
and London, 1973), 1, 5-9, 149, 265; and Robert D. Cuff, "Herbert
Hoover, the Ideology of Voluntarism and War Organization during the
Great War," Journal of American History ( September 1977):358.
Edward Berkowitz and
Kim McQuaid, Creating the Welfare State: The
Political Economy of Twentieth Century Reform ( New York, 1980), 25‐ 26; Cuff, The War Industries Board, 9; Richard L. Watson, The Development of National Power: The United States 1900-1919 ( Boston, 1976), 23.
Seward W. Livermore, Politics Is Adjourned: Woodrow Wilson and the
War Congress, 1916-18 ( Middletown, Conn., 1966).
Watson, The Development of National Power, 221.
Frederick Paxson, American Democracy and the World War, II: America
at War 1917-1918 ( New York, 1939), 20; Army Appropriations Act in Grosvenor B. Clarkson, Industrial America in the World War: The Strategy behind the Line 1917-1918 ( Boston and New York, 1923), 491-92.