of the "technical requirements of industrial America," but the war had certainly added to both of these. Higher education, too, expanded after the war. In 1919 and 1920 registration in universities increased by half as returning soldiers poured back into college, aided in some cases by bonus payments or grants from their individual states. By 1926 over three‐ quarters of a million students attended colleges in America, four or five times the numbers in European countries. 87
If the First World War did not fundamentally effect education, nor did it alter the American family. However, by raising issues such as education and child welfare as matters of national concern, and by opening or increasing employment opportunities for women, the war did reveal how much the family's functions had changed in industrial society. In accelerating the separation of home and work and by encouraging the allocation of certain responsibilities such as health, education, and welfare outside the family, the war hastened the trend toward modernization. Although none of these concerns ceased to be individual responsibilities, they were now recognized as matters of national importance, vital to the well-being of the community as a whole. In raising such matters the war contributed to the sense and awareness of change—and thus contributed too to the reaction—that was evident in the 1920s; it also helped to ensure that when individuals were unable to fulfill their obligations in these areas on a large scale in the 1930s, they would look to government for assistance.