create a different America. The unrest after, and indeed during, the war
was both a reaction to and reflection of those changes. The very intensity
of wartime hysteria and Red Scare revealed the extent to which America
had departed from prewar norms.
Burl Noggle, Into the Twenties: The United States from Armistice to
Normalcy ( Urbana, Ill., Chicago, and London, 1974); Robert K. Murray, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919-1920 ( New York, Toronto, and London, 1964); W. E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914-1932 ( Chicago and London, 1958); Stanley Coben, "A Study
in Nativism: The American Red Scare of 1919-20," Political Science
Quarterly 79, no. 1 ( March 1964): 52-75.
Raymond B. Fosdick, Chronicle of a Generation: An Autobiography
( New York, 1958), 198-99.
Jane Addams, The Second Twenty Years at Hull House ( New York, 1930), 153.
Lane, The Letters of Franklin Lane: Personal and Political ( Boston and New York, 1922), 270; Josephus Daniels, The Cabinet Diaries of
Josephus Daniels 1913-1921 ( Lincoln, Neb., 1963), 279, 341.
New York Times 24 October 1918; E. Jay Howenstine, The Economics of
Demobilization (Washington, D.C., 1944), 87-88.
Noggle, Into the Twenties, 52-53.
John Morton Blum, Joe Tumulty and the Wilson Era ( Boston, 1951), 150; John A. Thompson, "The First World War and the American Progressive
Publicists," Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1969, 442.
National Conference of Social Work, Proceedings, 45th Annual Session, Kansas City, Missouri, May 15-22 ( 1918), 9; Estella T. Weeks, Reconstruction Programs: A Comparative Study of Their Content and of the
Viewpoints of the Issuing Organizations ( New York, 1919), 69, and American Federationist, quoted, 11.
Academy of Political Science, Columbia University, Proceedings: War
Labor Policies and Reconstruction 8, no. 2 ( February 1919); " Foundations for Reconstruction," American Labor Legislation Review 3, no. 4
( December 1918); Philip Taft, The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers
( New York, 1970), 369-72.
Noggle, Into the Twenties, 39-40; National Catholic War Council, Administrative Committee, Bishops' Program of Social Reconstruction: A
General Review of the Problems and Survey of Remedies for Social
Reconstruction, 20th anniversary edition, presented to Senate, 6 June 1939; John Tracy Ellis, Documents of American Catholic History ( Milwaukee, 1956), 611.
Baker to Wilson, 30 November, 1918, Reel 6, Baker Papers, LC; Wilson,
address to Congress, 2 December 1918, in
Alfred Bushnell Hart, Selected Addresses and Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson ( New York, 1918), 289-303.