Motivations and the Perceiver's
Consequences for Stereotype
Carey S. Ryan
Social stereotypes have long been assumed to be inaccurate. This assumption underlies nearly all of the most influential theories of stereotyping and prejudice ( Ryan, Park, & Judd, in press), including, for example, scapegoating ( Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939), realistic group conflict theory (Sherif & Sherif, 1953), and social cognition theories of social categorization (Hamilton & Trolier, 1986). Despite the ubiquity of this assumption, however, there have been few empirical investigations of stereotype accuracy. Furthermore, the work that has been done has focused primarily on whether particular cultural stereotypes are accurate or inaccurate (e.g., Abate & Berrien, 1967; McCauley & Stitt, 1978; Swim, 1994) or on the complex methodological issues involved in the assessment of stereotype accuracy (e.g., Judd & Park, 1993; McCauley & Stitt, 1978). There has been little research concerning the psychological factors____________________
Correspondence concerning this chapter should be addressed to Carey S. Ryan, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260. Electronic mail may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.