that he dissented 220 times, filing dissenting opinions in eighty-six of those cases. In sixty-four instances, he dissented alone.
The principal Field manuscript collections are at Berkeley Library, University of California, and at the Oregon Historical Society, Portland. Another valuable manuscript source is the voluminous papers of Judge Matthew P. Deady, a friend and colleague of Field's. They are also held by the Oregon Historical Society. Field's Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in California ( 1893 edition) sheds light on some of the cases and controversies the justice was involved in; they also provide hints about his character and outlook. Because Field was a public and controversial figure for so long a time, contemporary newspapers contain many references to and comments about him. The San Francisco newspapers of the era are especially useful in this regard. A friendly compendium of fact and opinion is C. F. Black and S. B. Smith, eds., Some Account of the Work of Stephen J. Field . . . with an Introductory Sketch by John N. Pomeroy ( 1881); this work was evidently planned as a "campaign biography." Scattered information and insight can be derived from H. M. Field, Record of the Family of the Late David Dudley Field ( 1860) and from the same author's Life of David Dudley Field ( 1898).
The major modern biographical treatment is Carl B. Swisher, Stephen J. Field: Craftsman of the Law ( Washington, D.C., 1930), a balanced and authoritative account. H. J. Graham, "Justice Field and the Fourteenth Amendment," 52 Yale Law Journal 851 ( 1943) is a classic essay, loaded with precepts and suggestions. Charles Fairman, Mr. Justice Miller and the Supreme Court ( Cambridge, Mass., 1939) is a rich account of the court and of constitutional development during Field's era on the bench; and it also supplies a corrective for those who are tempted to view Field's constitutional doctrines oversimplistically. Similar services are performed by A. M. Paul, Conservative Crisis and the Rule of Law ( Ithaca, N.Y, 1960), and by C. P. Magrath, Morrison R. Waite ( New York, 1963). See also Wallace Mendelson, "Mr. Justice Field and Laissez Faire," 36 Virginia Law Review 45 ( 1950), and Robert G. McCloskey, American Conservatism in the Age of Enterprise ( New York, 1951).