a large picture of Shiras in the center of its first page above the caption HE MADE THE AMENDMENT NECESSARY. Said the Digest, "In a test case before the Supreme Court in April, 1895, Justice George Shiras, Jr., was one of the majority which found the income tax constitutional, but a month later he changed his opinion and the law was declared invalid by a vote of five to four." Poor Shiras.
The major source on Shiras's personal life, and the only noteworthy one, is an interesting, if discursive, biography begun by his son, George Shiras III, and completed by his grandson, Winfield Shiras, Justice George Shiras, Jr. of Pittsburgh ( Pittsburgh, 1953). It relies heavily on family papers and personal recollections. The chapters on Shiras's Court period contain good leads but require cautious use. E. S. Corwin's Court over Constitution ( Princeton, N.J., 1938) has an important chapter on the income tax case. See also Willard L. King , Melville Weston Fuller ( New York, 1950). A. M. Paul, Conservative Crisis and the Rule of Law ( Ithaca, N.Y., 1960) examines the growth of the new judicialism in relationship to social tensions. All the sources include discussions of the voting alignments in the Pollock case.