The romanization of Chinese here adopted is the Wade—Giles system except when departure from long-established usage may cause confusion (thus the character for 'department' may appear both as chou and chow in the same sentence). My capitalization tends to vary with the caprice of the authority followed.
The translation of Chinese names for documents submitted to and issued from the Emperor gives rise to difficulty. In Ch'ing Administration (Harvard, 1960), John K. Fairbank and Ssŭ-yü Têng give thirteen phrases translated 'memorial', four translated 'commands', four 'decrees', and four 'edicts', as well as a score or so translated 'supplementary memorials', 'endorsements', 'instructions', 'rescripts', etc. Nor do the authorities agree as to the correct translations. In consequence, the renderings given in this book are somewhat arbitrary.
As for the maps, no two contemporary ones agree as to the location of a number of towns or villages, and a few places are to be found (if at all) only in sketch-maps in books. In designing the map on p. 8 a main reliance has been placed on the Chinese map in IHT, I (frontispiece).