'ANTI-FOREIGN' OR 'ANTI-MISSIONARY'?
Missionary enterprise...was the one great agency whose primary function was to bring China into contact with the best in the Occident and to make the expansion of the West a means to the greater welfare of the Chinese people.
K. S. LATOURETTE, A History of Christian Missions in China ( 1929), p. 843.
Four times in history was China offered the possibility of adopting organized Christianity.... But [the missions] always failed, and the fact must be faced by Westerners that the Christian religion in its organized forms has been decisively rejected by the Chinese culture. As Antonio Banfi has put it, this necessarily followed from the highly organic structure of Chinese humanistic morality which could not but view with distaste a religion placing so tragic an accent upon transcendence, and which was therefore so dogmatic and ecclesiastical.
JOSEPH NEEDHAM, "'The Past in China's Present'", Centennial Rev. IV, 3 ( 1960).
The fault lies largely with Christianity. It has the misfortune in every alien land of running counter to almost all cherished local institutions. It offends everyone: it antagonizes every creed; it mingles with none, because its fundamental tenets deny the co-existence of any other faith or standard of morality.
PAUL H. CLEMENTS, The Boxer Rebellion; a Political and Diplomatic Review
( New York, 1915), p. 74.
That the Boxer uprising was both anti-foreign and anti-Christian is incontestable, but whether it was essentially anti-Christian or whether it became so only because the missionaries were foreigners has been a matter of controversy. Steiger, for one, is at pains to argue from the known tolerance of one another's existence of the Chinese religious sects that the Boxers could not have been a sect (chiao), and, from reasons of prudence at the least, they would not have attacked the Christians. But (as will be demonstrated once again in the ensuing chapters) the Boxers were definitely a hui, or secret society, of an anti-Christian nature.
Before the arrival of the Christian missionaries the rebellious sects could scarcely claim that the former were the authors of the country's misfortunes, but with their advent and increase in numbers, which coincided with a deterioration in the political and economic conditions in