Although it was written several years ago ( 1960), this final chapter from Morris Janowitz's The Professional Soldier contains many insights regarding the values and the future of the American military profession. Janowitz almost prophetically introduces the conception of a constabulary force that "is continuously prepared to act, committed to the minimum use of force, and seeks viable international relations, rather than victory." Like Huntington he stresses the military's need for understanding the principle of civilian control but unlike Huntington he does not see a loss of professionalism as the military officer moves closer to civilian values and becomes less alienated from the parent society. He predicts a number of trends and emphasizes the need for military officers to study international relations at the very outset of their careers. His discussion of the roles of military technologists, heroic leaders, and military managers has made these terms part of the standard terminology of military scholars. He stresses the need for a more realistic understanding of practical politics as distinguished from the "moralistic exhortations regarding ideal goals." His distinction between the intellectual officer and the military intellectual rings true, as do his assessments of the tasks facing these different types of military leaders. The trends he noted in 1960 toward the study and uses of social sciences and away from engineering obviously materialized, but such trends may well be cyclical since the current experience suggests a return to technical emphasis.
Reprinted with permission of The Free Press, a division of Macmillan, Inc., from The Professional Soldier by Morris Janowitz, pp. 417-442. 1960 and 1971 by The Free Press.