War, Morality, and the Military Profession

By Malham M. Wakin | Go to book overview

which the military, in coalition with demagogic civilian leaders, wield unprecedented amounts of political and administrative power. In the garrison state the officer fights for national survival and glory.

But the constabulary force is designed to be compatible with the traditional goals of democratic political control. The constabulary officer performs his duties, which include fighting, because he is a professional with a sense of self-esteem and moral worth. Civilian society permits him to maintain his code of honor and encourages him to develop his professional skill. He is amenable to civilian political control because he recognizes that civilians appreciate and understand the tasks and responsibilities of the constabulary force. He is integrated into civilian society because he shares its common values. To deny or destroy the difference between the military and the civilian cannot produce genuine similarity, but runs the risk of creating new forms of tension and unanticipated militarism.


Notes
1.
When they have intervened in domestic civil disorders, federal troops have encountered little opposition, except for the Pullman strike. In the past, the presence of a limited number of troops, for there were usually no more than a limited number available, has been sufficient to restore order and prevent further disturbance. By contrast, General MacArthur engaged in a relatively large-scale operation when 500 troops were used, with more than 1,000 held in reserve, in order to evict the 8,000 bonus marchers on Washington, D.C. during the administration of President Herbert Hoover. The cavalry led the way, followed by tanks, machine gunners, and infantry. The troops wore gas masks, and in a few minutes tear gas completely cleared the "Fort," where the bonus army lived in makeshift huts. Apparently, the army had been requested to move into the troubled area without firearms but the military authorities decided that if soldiers were to be involved they would use guns, not sticks. However this episode stands in contrast to the typical behavior of the army in civil disorders. When properly trained, equipped, and commanded, it has sought to limit the display and use of force. See Reichley, M. S., "Federal Military Intervention in Civil Disturbances" (Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, 1939).
2.
Despite the growth of reporting and control devices, it is the infrequent real tests which lay bare the state of the military establishment. The smallscale landing in Lebanon in 1958, undertaken under most favorable conditions, was considered by observers to have been a defective military operation, aside from its political dimensions. See, in particular, Baldwin, Hanson, "Concern Over Defense", New York Times, 1958, p. 14. Such disclosures constitute the basis for fundamental civilian review of the adequacy and organization of constabulary forces, although, in actuality, this particular instance was not used either by Congress or by executive leadership.

-78-

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War, Morality, and the Military Profession
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • About the Book and Editor v
  • Contents vii
  • Preface to the First Edition xi
  • Preface to the Second Edition xiii
  • Part 1 Ethics and the Military Profession 1
  • Introduction to Part 1 3
  • Notes 8
  • 1: The World of Epictetus: Reflections on Survival and Leadership 10
  • 2: Officership as a Profession 23
  • Notes 33
  • 3: The Military Mind: Conservative Realism of the Professional Military Ethic 35
  • Notes 52
  • 4: The Future of the Military Profession 57
  • Notes 78
  • 5: Society and the Soldier: 1914-18 80
  • Notes 89
  • 6: Today and Tomorrow 90
  • Notes 102
  • 7: The Military in the Service of the State 104
  • Notes 120
  • 8: The Professions Under Siege 121
  • 9: The Shame of the Professions 134
  • 10: Duty, Honor, Country: Practice and Precept 140
  • Notes 155
  • 11: Conflicting Loyalties and the American Military Ethic 157
  • Notes 169
  • 12: Loyalty, Honor, and the Modern Military 171
  • Notes 178
  • 13: Integrity 180
  • 14: The Ethics of Leadership I 181
  • Notes 198
  • 15: The Ethics of Leadership II 200
  • Part 2 War and Morality 217
  • Introduction to Part 2 219
  • Notes 225
  • 16: Just and Unjust Wars 226
  • Notes 237
  • 17: The Just War and Non-Violence Positions 239
  • Notes 254
  • 18: Just-War Theories: The Bases, Interrelations, Priorities, and Functions of Their Criteria 256
  • Notes 272
  • 19: Pacifism: Some Philosophical Considerations 277
  • 20: War and Murder 284
  • Notes 296
  • 21: War and Massacre 297
  • Notes 314
  • 22: On the Morality of War: A Preliminary Inquiry 317
  • Notes 338
  • 23: The Killing of the Innocent 341
  • Notes 359
  • 24: War Crimes 365
  • Notes 378
  • 25: Superior Orders and Reprisals 380
  • Notes 389
  • 26: The Laws of War 391
  • Notes 407
  • Selected Bibliography 409
  • 27: On the Morality of Chemical/Biological War 410
  • Notes 422
  • 28: Supreme Emergency 425
  • Notes 442
  • 29: Some Paradoxes of Deterrence 444
  • Notes 460
  • 30: On Nuclear War and Nuclear Deterrence 463
  • Notes 483
  • 31: Moral Clarity in the Nuclear Age 487
  • Notes 497
  • 32: On Nuclear Morality 499
  • Notes 508
  • 33: The Moral Case for the Strategic Defense Initiative 509
  • Notes 515
  • The Contributors 517
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