attitudes and actions, for example, on the jus in bello which also
expresses other enduring duties and obligations. Finally, I identified
several unresolved issues in the application of just-war criteria,
particularly their order, priorities, and weight. Theorists of just wars
need to pay more attention to numerous issues including the bases,
interrelations, and functions of their criteria. Otherwise, they will
appear merely to posit traditional criteria without foundation and
coherence. Of course, such issues constitute only part of the total
agenda for just-war theorists in this age. Other critical issues of
relevance and application also require attention, but they cannot be
adequately addressed if we are not willing to face some of the ethical,
philosophical, and theological questions that war raises.
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1971) #58.
James T. Johnson, "Just War Theory:"What's the Use? Worldview 19,
nos. 7-8 ( July-August 1976) 41-47.
See Frederick H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages ( New York: Cambridge University, 1975); James T. Johnson, Ideology, Reason and the
Limitation of War ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 1975); LeRoy Brandt Walters, Jr.
, Five Classic Just-War Theories:A Study in the Thought
of Thomas Aquinas, Vitoria, Suarez, Gentile, and Grotius (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1971).
Ralph B. Potter, Jr., War and Moral Discourse ( Richmond, Va.: John
Knox, 1969) 61. One of the best systematic examinations of just-war criteria
is Potter's article "The Moral Logic of War", McCormick Quarterly 23 ( 1970) 203-33.
Larry L. Rasmussen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer:Reality and Resistance ( New
York: Abingdon, 1972), all of Part 2, but esp. pp. 145-46, 154-55.
James Luther Adams, "Civil Disobedience:"Its Occasions and Limits,
in Political and Legal Obligation:Nomos XII, ed.
J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman ( New York: Atherton, 1970) 303. Cf. James F. Childress, Civil Disobedience and Political Obligations:A Study in Christian Social
Ethics ( New Haven: Yale University, 1971)chap. 4.
Paul Ramsey, Christian Ethics and the Sit-in ( New York: Association, 1961) 104. Cf. Paul Ramsey, War and the Christian Conscience ( Durham,
N.C.: Duke University, 1961) and The Just War:Force and Political Responsibility ( New York: Scribner's 1968). For an attempt to apply just-war
criteria to organ transplants on the grounds that both are instances of "the
controlled use of regrettable violence," see James B. Nelson, Human Medicine
( Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1973)chap. 7.
W. D. Ross, Foundations of Ethics ( Oxford: Clarendon, 1939) 86. Cf. Ross, The Right and the Good ( Oxford: Clarendon, 1930)chap. 2. "Prima-