Latin Looks: Images of Latinas and Latinos in the U.S. Media

By Clara E. Rodríguez | Go to book overview

Conclusion: Effects of the Stereotypes

Stereotypes have been examined as believed categories, and the effect of stereotyping on the stereotyped must be stressed. One of the saddest aspects of stereotyping is that out-group members may begin to believe and accept the stereotype. As Dyer ( 1984) argues, one damaging effect of stereotyping is that the in-group defines the out-group for both in-group and out-group. As a stereotype may serve in-group members by reinforcing the belief of their "natural" superiority over the typed out- group, it is thought also to work on out-group members, causing them to view themselves as they are portrayed by the in-group. Imagine what Hispanic viewers-- both inside and outside the U.S. (or for that matter people of color elsewhere in the world)--think when they watch Raiders of the Lost Ark and see in the film's opening ten minutes the dashing Anglo hero betrayed four different times by Hispanic underlings. Couldn't this be insidious reaffirmation of a true power structure and an existing social order?

Stereotyping of Hispanics continues; we have only begun to grasp its significance.


NOTES

Reprinted by permission of the publisher from the Howardjournal of Communications, Vol. 2, no. 3 (Summer 1990), pp. 286-300.


REFERENCES

Benvenuto, B., & Kennedy, R ( 1986). The Works of Jacques Lacan. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Berg, C. R. ( 1988, March). Extra terrestrials and Simpson-Rodino: Science fiction's alien 'other' as Hispanic imagery. Changing Images of the U.S. Hispanic in Film Conference, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Bowie, M. ( 1987). Freud, Proust and Lacan: Theory as fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dyer, R. ( 1984). Stereotyping. In R. Dyer (Ed.), Gays and film ( rev. ed., p. 30). New York: Zaetrope.

Ellmann, M. ( 1968). Thinking about women. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Gallop, J. ( 1985). Reading Lacan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gilman, S. L. ( 1985). Difference and pathology: Stereotypes of sexuality, race, and madness (pp. 16-21). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gledhill, C. ( 1985). Recent developments in feminist criticism. In G. Mast & M. Cohen (Eds.), Film theory and criticism: Introductory readings ( 2nd ed., pp. 817-845). New York: Oxford University Press.

Keller, G. D. ( 1985). The image of the Chicano in Mexican, United States, and Chicano cinema: An overview. In G. D. Keller (Ed.), Chicano cinema: Research, reviews, and resources (pp. 13-15). Binghamton, NY: Bilingual Review/Press.

-119-

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Latin Looks: Images of Latinas and Latinos in the U.S. Media
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • Part One - Latinos on Television and in the News: Absent or Misrepresented 13
  • Notes 19
  • 1: Out of the Picture 21
  • 2 - Hispanic Voices: is the Press Listening? 36
  • Notes 53
  • 3: Distorted Reality 57
  • Part Two - The Silver Screen: Stories and Stereotypes 73
  • Notes 79
  • 4: Visual Retrospective 80
  • 5: Citizen Chicano 85
  • 6 - Stereotyping in Films in General and of the Hispanic in Particular 104
  • References 119
  • 7 - Chicanas in Film: History of an Image 121
  • Notes 139
  • 8: From Assimilation to Annihilation 142
  • 9: West Side Story 164
  • 10: Keeping It Reel? Films of the 1980s and 1990s 180
  • Part Three - Creating Alternative Images: The Others" Present Themselves" 185
  • 11 - From the Margin to the Center: Puerto Rican Cinema in New York 188
  • Notes 199
  • 12: Unofficial Stories 200
  • 13: Type and Stereotype 214
  • 14 - Two Film Reviews: My Family/Mi Familia and the Perez Family 221
  • 15 - Hispanic-Oriented Media 225
  • Notes 236
  • References 236
  • Part Four - Strategies for Change 239
  • 16 - Promoting Analytical and Critical Viewing 240
  • Notes 247
  • Notes 250
  • Notes 253
  • 17 - Questions and Reflections About the Reading in This Book 254
  • 18: What We Can Do 261
  • References 271
  • About-The Book, and Editor 275
  • About the Contributors 277
  • Index 279
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