Clearing the Air: The Real Story of the War on Air Pollution

By Indur Goklany | Go to book overview

3. Long-Term Trends in Ambient
(Outdoor) Air Quality in the United
States

After indoor air concentrations (or appropriate proxies), the next best indicators for the public health impacts of air pollution are outdoor (or ambient) air concentrations at approximately ground level.

Systematic national efforts to monitor the air began in 1953, when the U.S. Public Health Service's Division of Sanitary Engineering began sampling suspended particulate matter using "high-volume samplers" in 17 cities in cooperation with local (and a few state) agencies. By 1956, particulate sampling had expanded to 66 communities nationwide. In 1957, the National Air Sampling Network, which planned to operate about 100 sampling stations each year in urban and nonurban areas, was established, followed in 1959-60 by the Gas Sampling Network, which was to collect 24-hour samples of SO2 and nitrogen dioxide. Then in 1962, the six-city Continuous Air Monitoring Project (CAMP) was begun to continuously measure CO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, and total oxidants.1 The order in which these monitoring programs came into being also reflects the order in which the various pollutants intruded into the consciousness of national policymakers and the public as having significant real or potential effects on public health (see Table 1-1).

Data from these sampling networks—which, at any one time, used more or less consistent protocols and procedures for gathering, handling, analyzing, and reporting data for each pollutant—allow us to construct national trends for the various pollutants. Using these data and data from successor networks managed by—or reported by states and local agencies to—EPA, it is possible to construct "national" trends provided measurements are appropriately adjusted to account for any changes in protocols, procedures, instruments, and instrument placement that may have occurred from time

-49-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Clearing the Air: The Real Story of the War on Air Pollution
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 187

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.