Although Harper never became destitute, toward the end of her life her finances were more restricted. Because her philosophy conflicted with that of Booker T. Washington and there were many younger women who were closely allied with his wife, Margaret Murray Washington, a leader in the black woman's club movement, Harper may have been excluded at a time when her experience could have added valuable insights. Harper continued to attend the meetings of the WCTU and the Universal Peace Union; she worked with more recently formed organizations, such as the NACW and the National Association of Colored Educators; and she supported woman suffrage.
At Frances Ellen Watkins Harper's death in 1911, many tributes were written. Since she had outlived most of her contemporaries who had been active in the abolitionist movement and during the Reconstruction era, few of the eulogies were comprehensive in their description of her career and accomplishments. W. E. B. Du Bois, writing in the magazine Crisis, noted her literary accomplishments but paid little attention to her extensive reform work. T. Thomas Fortune reminded the readers of the New York Age that she had worked with Lucretia Mott, William Lloyd Garrison, and many of the great reformers of the nineteenth century. George Freeman Bragg's editorial in the Baltimore Afro- American was one of the few that exhibited a breadth of knowledge about her life and work and captured the essence of her life.
This is the first full-length, analytical essay to examine the life of Frances Ellen Watkins Harper as an abolitionist and feminist reformer. Several essays published since this presentation ( 1987) provide excellent examinations of Harper as a writer and challenge previous evaluations written after Harper's death. A superb analysis of Harper as a novelist and of her relationship to traditional models of women's fiction in the United States is "Of Lasting Service for the Race," a chapter in Hazel V. Carby, Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the African American Woman Novelist ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). In addi-