Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies

By E. D. Klemke | Go to book overview

Part 1: The Pre-analytic Tradition

Introduction

Our chief task in this volume is to examine the various forms of twentieth- century analytic and linguistic philosophy. But before we do that, it would be best for us to look briefly at some of the pre-analytic traditions that appeared in the nineteenth century and in the earlier part of the twentieth century (in the Western world). Why begin with these pre-analytic philosophies? For three main reasons: First, virtually every movement in twentieth-century philosophy can best be understood as being in opposition to one or more of the central tenets of one of those pre-analytic philosophies — namely, absolute idealism. Second, with regard to both themes and methodology, there are various affinities between some pragmatists (especially Peirce) and certain analytic philosophers. (And some of the latter have a definite pragmatic slant in their views.) Third, some analytic philosophies maintain positions that are realistic in nature. Hence, in this part of the book, we will briefly examine (absolute) idealism (as represented by Josiah Royce), pragmatism (as represented by Charles Sanders Peirce), and realism [as represented by E. B. Holt, et al. (the new realism) and Durant Drake (critical realism)].


IDEALISM

In nineteenth-century Germany there occurred a great flowering of metaphysical philosophies. A number of systems were put forth that claimed to reveal what reality is in its innermost essence. The philosophers of this era stressed the significance of human reason and had great confidence in its power. In fact, they saw reality as the manifestation of an Infinite Reason, and thought that by philosophical reflection, the whole development of this manifestation could be plotted and grasped. This movement was known as absolute idealism (or objective idealism) in order to distinguish it from the subjective idealism of Bishop Berkeley. Its major figures were Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( 1763-1814), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling ( 1775-1854), and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770-1831).

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Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Preface 9
  • Acknowledgments 11
  • Introduction - The Rise of Analytic Philosophy 15
  • Notes 20
  • The Pre-Analytic Tradition 21
  • Introduction 23
  • Idealism 31
  • Reality and Idealism 31
  • Selected Bibliography 53
  • Pragmatism 55
  • How to Make Our Ideas Clear 55
  • Notes 69
  • Pragmaticism 71
  • Selected Bibliography 78
  • American Realism 79
  • The Program and First Platform of Six Realists 79
  • Notes 86
  • The Approach to Critical Realism 87
  • Notes 104
  • Selected Bibligraphy 107
  • Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies 109
  • Introduction 111
  • Notes 119
  • Realism and Common Sense 121
  • The Refutation of Idealism 121
  • Note 137
  • The Subject-Matter of Ethics 138
  • Notes 162
  • A Defence of Common Sense 163
  • Proof of an External World 184
  • Note 201
  • Selected Bibliography 203
  • Logical Atomism 205
  • Facts and Propositions 205
  • Note 212
  • Particulars, Predicates, and Relations 213
  • Note 222
  • Excursus into Metaphysics What There Is 223
  • Note 232
  • Selected Bibliography 233
  • Logical Positivism 235
  • The Elimination of Metaphysics 235
  • Notes 246
  • The Futiction of Philosophy 247
  • Notes 252
  • The a Priori 253
  • Notes 264
  • Truth and Probability 265
  • Notes 270
  • Critique of Ethics and Theology 271
  • Notes 284
  • Selected Bibliography 286
  • Conceptual Analysis 287
  • Systematically Misleading Expressions 287
  • Wittgenstein's Lectures in 1930-33 307
  • Notes 319
  • Philosophical Perplexity 320
  • Notes 331
  • Philosophy, Anxiety, and Novelty 332
  • Notes 337
  • Gods 338
  • Notes 351
  • Descartes' Myth 353
  • Selected Bibliography 365
  • Logico-Metaphysical Analysis 367
  • Logical Positivism, Language, and the Reconstruction of Metaphysics 367
  • Note 377
  • On What There Is 378
  • Notes 390
  • Two Dogmas of Empiricism 391
  • Notes 409
  • Selected Bibliography 410
  • Linguistic Analysis 411
  • Performative-Constative 411
  • Notes 419
  • Intention and Convention in Speech Acts 421
  • Notes 436
  • What is a Speech Act? 437
  • Notes 451
  • Selected Bibliography 452
  • General Works on Analytic Philosophy 453
  • Sources of More Complete Bibliographies 454
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