Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies

By E. D. Klemke | Go to book overview
describe the talkers by setting down a lot of that about them which makes us say that they are using sentences 'generally' 'ethically' etc., including all their purposes, and therefore purposes other than preparing their hearers for tigers or no cake, and all their ways of supporting their sentences (not tied down by logicbook models) then we shall have descriptions of all talkers which, though very long and still incomplete, involve nothing but talk, nods, smiles, and surprises.
f. Now again it may be asked, 'Is there no system of general descriptions, are there no general words, which would enable us to describe utterances well enough without this endless detail? Does a statistical description in terms of mean, mean deviation, interquartile range, describe well enough the individuals we have examined? Well enough for what? Well enough for some things but not for others. It all depends. Certainly there is a system of general words for describing utterances — 'imperative', 'interrogative', 'indicative', 'indicative used generally', 'necessarily', 'ethically', etc., in fact the system of words already mentioned.
g. But for removing philosophical puzzles these words won't do until it is too late to save our labours, for they won't do until the point-by-point descriptions have been given. Even then if we go back to the old general words only we shall soon half lose what we have gained. Looking at the detailed pictures of utterances, we saw them all anew and in doing so saw how the old system of descriptions hid so many of their varieties of purpose and of logic; regardless of distortion they were crammed into boxes with labels on — no need to look inside.
h. It is not because it's bad that the old system won "t do, but because it's old. As we all know but won't remember, any classificatory system is a net spread on the blessed manifold of the individual and blinding us not to all but to too many of its varieties and continuities. A new system will do the same but not in just the same ways. So that in accepting all the systems their blinding power is broken, their revealing power becomes acceptable; the individual is restored to us, not isolated as before we used language, not in a box as when language mastered us, but in 'creation's chorus'.

NOTES
1.
The Philosophy of G. E. Moore (ed . by P. A. Schilpp), p. 544.
2.
The Philosophy of G. E. Moore (ed . by P. A. Schilpp), p. 675.
3.
The disastrous effects of qualms in an iconoclast are seen in Mr. Ayer's last book, The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge. And people readily mistake mock qualms for real ones.
4.
A good example is Stace's note on Whitehead's doctrine that everything is everywhere ( Mind, January, 1943, p. 61, II. 12-28).

-337-

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Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Preface 9
  • Acknowledgments 11
  • Introduction - The Rise of Analytic Philosophy 15
  • Notes 20
  • The Pre-Analytic Tradition 21
  • Introduction 23
  • Idealism 31
  • Reality and Idealism 31
  • Selected Bibliography 53
  • Pragmatism 55
  • How to Make Our Ideas Clear 55
  • Notes 69
  • Pragmaticism 71
  • Selected Bibliography 78
  • American Realism 79
  • The Program and First Platform of Six Realists 79
  • Notes 86
  • The Approach to Critical Realism 87
  • Notes 104
  • Selected Bibligraphy 107
  • Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies 109
  • Introduction 111
  • Notes 119
  • Realism and Common Sense 121
  • The Refutation of Idealism 121
  • Note 137
  • The Subject-Matter of Ethics 138
  • Notes 162
  • A Defence of Common Sense 163
  • Proof of an External World 184
  • Note 201
  • Selected Bibliography 203
  • Logical Atomism 205
  • Facts and Propositions 205
  • Note 212
  • Particulars, Predicates, and Relations 213
  • Note 222
  • Excursus into Metaphysics What There Is 223
  • Note 232
  • Selected Bibliography 233
  • Logical Positivism 235
  • The Elimination of Metaphysics 235
  • Notes 246
  • The Futiction of Philosophy 247
  • Notes 252
  • The a Priori 253
  • Notes 264
  • Truth and Probability 265
  • Notes 270
  • Critique of Ethics and Theology 271
  • Notes 284
  • Selected Bibliography 286
  • Conceptual Analysis 287
  • Systematically Misleading Expressions 287
  • Wittgenstein's Lectures in 1930-33 307
  • Notes 319
  • Philosophical Perplexity 320
  • Notes 331
  • Philosophy, Anxiety, and Novelty 332
  • Notes 337
  • Gods 338
  • Notes 351
  • Descartes' Myth 353
  • Selected Bibliography 365
  • Logico-Metaphysical Analysis 367
  • Logical Positivism, Language, and the Reconstruction of Metaphysics 367
  • Note 377
  • On What There Is 378
  • Notes 390
  • Two Dogmas of Empiricism 391
  • Notes 409
  • Selected Bibliography 410
  • Linguistic Analysis 411
  • Performative-Constative 411
  • Notes 419
  • Intention and Convention in Speech Acts 421
  • Notes 436
  • What is a Speech Act? 437
  • Notes 451
  • Selected Bibliography 452
  • General Works on Analytic Philosophy 453
  • Sources of More Complete Bibliographies 454
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