Early Hispanic-American projects of confederation-- Clay, Bolívar, and the Panamá Congress--Alberdi advocates an American congress--Spanish--American congresses-- The "American Union" of Santiago de Chile--Stephen A. Douglas--Elijah Ward-- James G. Blaine as a Pan Americanist--The First International American Conference-- Succeeding International American Conferences--The Pan-American Union--The First Pan-American Financial Conference--The Pan-American Christian Congress--"Latin- American" Scientific Congresses--Pan-American Scientific Congresses--President Wilson's Pan-American Monroe Doctrine--Its reception in Hispanic America--The World War and the Pan-American spirit.
Pan-Americanism may be defined as a tendency displayed by independent nations of America to associate together. The United States has furnished notable manifestations of that tendency in recent decades. Occasionally the nations of Spanish and Portuguese derivation have shown a tendency to form a group with the United States. At an early stage, however, in the life of the Hispanic-American states some of their leaders expressed a desire to foster better relations among those states.
Even before the movement which culminated in the independence of the Indies from the motherland began, Francisco de Miranda had formed a project of a constitution for a confederation to include the Spanish colonies in America from Cape Horn to the sources of the Mississippi River.1 As early as April 27, 1810, a revolutionary junta at Caracas issued an address to the cabildos at the capitals of other Spanish-American provinces inciting them to join the revolutionary movement and to form a Spanish-American confederation.2 In the following year, at the instance of the Chilean governmental junta, Juan Egaña framed a "Project of a Declaration of Rights of the People of____________________