CHAPTER II
OTHER EUROPEAN TONGUES

The languages of Europe that do not belong to the three major branches of Indo-European (Germanic, Romance, Slavic) are fairly numerous, but relatively unimportant, from a practical standpoint. Greek and Albanian form two separate branches of Indo-European. the former is the national tongue of some 7,000,000 people in Greece and of perhaps one or two million more, located on Turkish, Bulgarian and Albanian territory, and in the politically Italian Dodecanese Islands, while the latter is spoken by over 1,000,000 people in Albania and by scattered minorities in yugoslavia, Greece, and even in southern Italy and Sicily. Finnish, Hungarian, Turkish and Estonian belong to the great Ural-Altaic family of northern Asia, and bear some resemblance to one another in structure, though they have so diverged in vocabulary as to be mutually incomprehensible (save in the case of Finnish and Estonian). Finnish is spoken by some 4,000,000 people in Finland and by scattered minorities in Russian Karelia; Estonian by about 1,000,000 in Estonia; Hungarian, or Magyar, by about 15,000,000 people, located in Hungary and in countries bordering on Hungary ( Czechoslovakia, Roumania, Yugoslavia); while Turkish is the national tongue of Turkey's 18,000,000 inhabitants, located mainly in Asia Minor, but also in European Turkey and adjacent territories ( Bulgaria and Greece; Turkish linguistic minorities are to be found as far west as Albania, and as far as north as Roumanian Dobrudja). The Celtic group of Indo-European appears in Ireland (Eire), where Irish (occasionally called "Erse", but not by the Irish themselves) is the official tongue, though more English than

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