The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition - Vol. 3

By Dan Isaac Slobin | Go to book overview

Format and Abbreviations for Glosses

All foreign language examples are given in Italics. (Small caps are used for emphasis and other usual functions of Italics.) In running text, English glosses and grammatical codes are given in single quotes, and optional free translations follow in parentheses, indicated by an equal sign and single quotes. Grammatical codes are always given in capital letters (see list, below). For example:

gel-me-di-n 'come-NEG-PAST-2SG' (= 'you didn't come').

In interlinear format, translation equivalents appear below each foreign element, and the free translation is placed below in single quotes:

gel -me -di -n
come NEG PAST 2SG
'you didn't come'

Hyphens in a gloss always correspond to hyphens in the foreign example. If one foreign element corresponds to more than one English element and/or grammatical code, the collection of meaning equivalents is joined by colons; e.g. gel-medin 'come-NEG:PAST:2SG', or even gelmedin 'come:NEG:PAST:2SG'. If it is relevant to indicate the possibility of segmentation, plus signs can be used in place of colons. The preceding example consists of segmentable morphemes, and could also be glossed, for example, as gel-medin 'come- NEG+PAST+2SG'. Use of colons is neutral in regard to the possibility of segmentation, and in most instances either colons or hyphens are used. (The degree of precision of segmentation and glossing of an example, of course, depends on the role it plays in the exposition.)

____________________
*
The abbreviations are adapted from a list used by Bernard Comrie ( The languages of the Soviet Union, Cambridge University Press, 1981, p. xv). The format is based on useful suggestions offered by Christian Lehmann in "Guidelines for interlinear morphemic translations: A proposal for a standardization" (Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Köln, Arbeitspapier Nr. 37, 1980). The system presented here is offered as a proposal for standardization in child language studies.

-ix-

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The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition - Vol. 3
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Format and Abbreviations for Glosses ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Acknowledgments 12
  • Acknowledgments 13
  • 1 - An Overview of Ergative Phenomena and Their Implications for Language Acquisition 15
  • References 36
  • 2 - Acquisition of Georgian 39
  • Acknowledgments 107
  • Acknowledgments 107
  • 3 - The Acquisition of West Greenlandic 111
  • 4 - The Acquisition of K'Iche' Maya 221
  • Introduction 222
  • 5 - The Acquisition of Warlpiri 309
  • References 368
  • 6 - The Acquisition of Mandarin 373
  • References 445
  • 7 - The Acquisition of Scandinavian Languages 457
  • References 551
  • 8 - The Acquisition of Sesotho 557
  • References 633
  • Subject Index 639
  • Author Index 649
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