of personal self-realization rather than community survival.In O'Neill's historical vision, episodes of intercultural conflict brought
about by migrations in world history created new transcultural dynamics.
These dynamics were significant not only in the evolution of world history but
also in the shaping of individual human character. For O'Neill, the reshaping
of character was largely a consequence of tragic suffering. The heroes of his
history plays are figures connected to and torn by their allegiance to two
cultural ethics. Through suffering, a new synthetic character emerges, shaped
by history and suggesting, in Emersonian terms, the dynamics of a new and
emerging cultural ethos ( Emerson114
). In this way, O'Neill anticipated in his
transcultural historical epics a central theme in subsequent American drama
about cultural conflict in America: the significance of such conflict in shaping
through tragic suffering a new synthetic culture defined not by conflicts
between communities but by an ethic of personal self-realization.
| Bogard Travis. Contour in Time: The Plays of Eugene ONeill. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1988|
| Costa Richard Hauer. H. G. Wells. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1985.|
| Emerson Ralph Waldo. "History." Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ed.
Richard Poirer. The
Oxford Authors. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1990. 113-30.|
| Fiske John. The Discovery of America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1901. 2 vols.|
| O'Neill Eugene. The Fountain. The Plays of Eugene O'Neill. Ed.
Travis Bogard and Jackson R. Bryer. New Haven: Yale UP, 1988.|
|_____. Selected Letters of Eugene O'Neill. Ed.
Travis Bogard and
Jackson R. Bryer. New Haven: Yale UP, 1988.|
|_____. "The Theatre We Worked For:" The Letters of Eugene O'Neill to Kenneth
Jackson R. Bryer. New Haven: Yale UP, 1982.|
|_____. "Spiritual Undertheme." "A Touch of the Poet" ms. notes. Beinecke Rare
Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.|
| Wells H. G. The Outline of History. New York: MacMillan, 1921. 2 vols.|