JOSÉ LUIS DA CRUZ VILAÇA with the assistance of Luis MIGUEL PAIS ANTUNES
The Single European Act,1 the purpose of which is to render more effective the system of Community institutions established by the Treaties, made a number of amendments to the structure, the powers, and the operating rules of all the institutions.
In the first place, it widened the scope of the qualified majority rule for decisions of the Council by comparison with what was previously laid down by the Treaties. This is the case with regard to matters relating not only to the achievement of the internal market, but also to areas traditionally governed by Community law where unanimity was previously required. These matters are as follows: amendents to the Common Customs Tariff-- Article 28 of the EEC Treaty; right to take up activities as a self-employed person--second part of Article 57(2); freedom to provide services for nationals of the Member States--second paragraph of Article 59; movement of capital and co-ordination of the exchange policies of the Member States-- Article 70(1); and sea and air transport--Article 84(2).2 This is also the case____________________