|1.||1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.|
|2.||2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.|
These provisions have been amplified by Article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966. This Article has in particular added a provision to the effect that 'Nobody shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country', a provision which helps to discourage discrimination vis à vis returning political dissidents or exiles. The implementation of the Covenant is ensured both by the general provisions of the Covenant on its monitoring by the United Nations Human Rights Committee and by those of the Optional Protocol on individual complaints. The vast majority of European States are parties to the Covenant and many have accepted the Protocol.
The freedom of movement is one of the few rights proclaimed by United Nations texts which was originally not included in the European Human Rights Convention. Whether this lacuna was due to the fact that during the first years after World War II, when the European Convention was being drafted, Europe still laboured under the problem of displaced persons and____________________