For European politicians and particularly for the British public, the spectacle was certainly astonishing or even amusing: the German Chancellor initiated, in the political context of Germany's reunification, a far-reaching development of European integration, pushed the other governments into important commitments by concluding the Treaty on European Union, announced that he would go further with those Member States which were ready and that he would leave behind the lingerers -- and then the Chancellor himself was left behind by the others who had overcome all their difficult constitutional conflicts connected with the ratification procedures. Europe was waiting for the German ratification of the Treaty on European Union, which depended on the judgment of the Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bundesverfassungsgericht.
The judgment of this Court concerning the Treaty on European Union, delivered in October 19931, is not only important because it gave the green light to putting the Treaty into force, but because it indicates, in its eightypage long reasoning, the constitutional possibilities and limits of Germany's participation in the process of European integration. For this reason, the judgment has been the subject of intense debate by German scholars2. It also____________________