NOTES
1.
This note, which belonged to Jules Boilly, was published in Archives de l'Art français, vol. III, 1852.
2.
Watin, L'Art du peintre, 1772.
3.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 4, 1791, entry on 'Terre' (earth).
4.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 4, 1791, entry on 'Cendre' (ash).
5.
Watin, op. cit., 1772.
6.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 4, 1791, entry on 'Glacis' (glaze) by Watelet.
7.
The colours mentioned by Cochin were also used to make pastel crayons, as demonstrated in Chaperon's famous Traité de la peinture au pastel (published in 1788, but based on much earlier usages) and, in particular, all four colours are found in Chardin's pastels.
8.
In Roger de Piles's Éléments de peinture pratique (Jombert edition, 1766), there is a description of the palette,' usually oval but sometimes square'. The shape depends on the person using it. . . . The colours are placed on the palette before painting. The colours are arranged along the side which is furthest away from the body when the palette is held in the hand and they are placed beside each other, but do not touch each other. The middle and lower parts of the palette provide space where tints and colours may be mixed with a knife.
9.
These details are taken from an article, questionable on some points, by F. Schmid, "The painter's implements in eighteenth-century art", Burlington Magazine, October 1966.
10.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 2, 1788, entry on 'Repoussoir'.
11.
Encyclopédie méthodique, 'De l'illusion dans la peinture', vol. 3, 1791.
12.
Particular reference is made to the following: L. Faillant-Dumas , "Des données de laboratoire sur Chardin", L'Estampille, no. 107, March 1979; and, by the same author, 'Étude de la technique picturale de Chardin' in the Diderot et l'Art de Boucher à David exhibition catalogue, Paris, 1985, pp. 152-53. See also J. Fronek, "The Materials and Technique of the Los Angeles Soap Bubbles", in P. Conisbee, 1990.
13.
Probably a similar white clay, as kaolin does not seem to have been discovered in France until about 1765, as Tamara Préaud and Antoine d'Albis have confirmed, for which I am very grateful. Chardin may of course have been supplied by a merchant who imported his colours from Germany where kaolin was used.
14.
In Woman Peeling Vegetables, this layer is grey at the edges and beige in the centre. I would like to thank Philip Conisbee for having sent me the technical data for all of the Chardin paintings which are in the National Gallery in Washington.
15.
Correspondance littéraire, 1750.
16.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 4, 1791, entry on 'Ton' (tone) by Lévêque.
17.
Salon of 1769, ed. Seznec and Adhémar, vol. IV, 1967.
18.
This information was given to me by E. Williams. The subject was dealt with at a symposium held in Boston in 1980 after the 1979 Chardin exhibition, the proceedings of which were not published.
19.
Description raisonnée des tableaux exposés au Louvre, 1738.
20.
Quoted by E. Gombrich, Art and Illusion, 1971, p. 195.
21.
E. Gombrich, op. cit., p. 200.
22.
Salon of 1763, ed. Seznec and Adhémar, vol. I, 1957, p. 226.
23.
Dissertation sur les differens accidens de la vue, quoted by M. Baxandall, op. cit., 1985.
24.
Salon of 1761, ed. Seznec and Adhémar, vol. I, 1957.
25.
Mémoires secrets, 12 December 1780.
26.
Encyclopédie méthodique, vol. 4, 1791, entry on 'Sentiment' (feeling) by Lévêque.
28.
Lettres à Madame *** sur les peintures . . ., 1763.
29.
Étienne Falconet expanded this concept to the sculptor whose talent 'so essential and so rare, however much within the grasp of all artists, is for "feeling". . . If the other studies are the basis, feeling alone is the soul'. ( Réflexions sur la Sculpture, 1760). Once again, Chardin demonstrated his knowledge of the classical theories and ideas of his time, as feeling in painting can be related to the doctrine of imitation and of the beauty of nature. A parallel may be drawn with Nicolas Poussin, when he compared the delivery of the orator to the action rendered in the discourse or the painting: 'Quintilian', he said, 'attributed so much energy and strength to action that he considered concepts, proofs and effects useless without it, and line and colour useless too' ( Bellori, quoted by Gombrich, op. cit., 1971). If we replace action with feeling, we rediscover the concept that technique alone is not sufficient to produce a work of art, whatever it is.
30.
See Michel, op. cit., 1993.
31.
Procès-verbaux de l'Académie, 4 March 1752. My italics.
32.
M. A. Laugier, Manière de bien juger des ouvragm de peinture, posthumous edition of 1771 with critical notes by Cochin.
33.
C. N. Cochin, Essai sur la vie de M. Chardin, 1780.
34.
Salon of 1765, ed. Seznec and Adhémar, vol. II, 1960, p. 57.

-143-

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Chardin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Preface 6
  • Part I - A Parisian Painter 9
  • Chapter One - Painter of Animals, Kitchen Utensils and Vegetables 11
  • Notes 34
  • Chapter Two - Becoming Famous 37
  • Notes 54
  • Chapter Three - The 1750s: a New Direction 57
  • Notes 73
  • Chapter Four - The 1760s: Official Commissions and a Select Clientele 75
  • Notes 91
  • Chapter Five - The Evening of a Beautiful Day 93
  • Notes 104
  • Part II - The Great Magician 106
  • Chapter One - The Painter and the Critics 109
  • Notes 127
  • Chapter Two - Colour, Brushwork and Feeling 129
  • Notes 143
  • Chapter Three - Still Llfe 145
  • Notes 187
  • Chapter Four - Portraits and Genre Scenes 189
  • Notes 233
  • Chapter Five - The Artist and Engravings 237
  • Notes 245
  • Chapter Six - Painting in Chardin's Time 247
  • Notes 262
  • Selected Texts 263
  • Catalogue of Engravings After Chardin 271
  • Bibliography 285
  • Index 289
  • Photographic Credits 293
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