The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War

By Michael F. Holt | Go to book overview

Notes

CHAPTER 1
1
Beverly C. Sandrin to James B. Clay, Baltimore, February 20, 1844, Thomas J. Clay MSS.
2
J. W. Mighels to Henry Clay, November 11, 1844, Henry Clay MSS (LC).
3
See, for example, Binkley, American Political Parties, and Schlesinger, Age of Jackson. For one historian who questions the very concept of a first party system by denying that Federalists and Jeffersonians developed the permanent organizations and voter identifications necessary to qualify as genuine parties, see Formisano, "Deferential-Participant Politics", and id., Federalists and Republicans.
4
This literature is too vast to list here, but for examples see Benson, Concept; Livermore, Twilight of Federalism; McCormick, Second American Party System.
5
The following analysis is largely my extrapolations from the insights in Ellis, Jeffersonian Crisis. The links between Jeffersonianism and Whiggery are also suggested by McCoy, Elusive Republic, pp. 236-59; Birkner, "Politics, Law and Enterprise"; and especially Howe, Political Culture, pp. 49-50, 90-91, 109, and passim.
6
The best study of the economic thought of the Jeffersonians is McCoy, Elusive Republic, but see also Appleby, Capitalism.
7
The best modern analyses of Clay during the 1820s can be found in Peterson, Great Triumvirate, and Remini, Henry Clay. For the Republicans' schizophrenia about the constitutionality of federal internal improvements, which would help explain Madison's veto of Calhoun's bonus bill in 1817 and Clay's later shift to a formula of federal revenue sharing, see Larson, "Jefferson's Union".
8
Aside from Ellis, my portrait of the Radicals is drawn from Brown, "The Missouri Crisis"; Phillips, "Democrats of the Old School", and Phillips, "Pennsylvania Origins"; Risjord, Old Republicans; Schlesinger, Age of Jackson, pp. 18-29; and Sellers, Market Revolution, pp. 34- 136.
9
The literature on republican ideology and its relationship to older "commonwealth" or "country" political ideas is now so familiar that it seems unnecessary to cite it all again. Much of it is conveniently summarized and cited in the Introduction to Elkins and McKitrick, Age of Federalism, pp. 3-29, 757-61. On the inculcation of veneration for the Revolutionary generation's achievements, however, see Welter, Mind of America, pp. 3-218 and passim; and Forgie, Patricide, pp. 3-53 and passim. For interpretations of how republican ideology was transformed between the Revolution and the Jacksonian period, see Ross, "Transformation of Republican Ideology", and Kruman, "Second American Party System".
10
On the egalitarian thrust of the Revolution that displaced the hierarchical conceptions of classical republicanism, see Wood, Radicalism.

-987-

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