Indians and the American West in the Twentieth Century

By Donald Lee Parman | Go to book overview

Notes

Preface
1
Abstract of the Twelfth Census, 1900 ( Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902), 32, 34, 36, 40, 230, 250, 296, 331-33.
2
Ibid., 40. Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were combined in 1907 to form the present state of Oklahoma.

1. The Heritage of Severalty
1
24 Stat. 388.
2
Earl Pomeroy, The Pacific Slope:A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), 71.
3
Wilcomb E. Washburn, ed., The American Indian and the United States:A Documentary History, vol. 3 ( New York: Random House, 1973), 1703-1704.
4
D. S. Otis, The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Lands, ed. Francis Paul Prucha ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973), 64-80, 99-103.
5
Ibid., 71-77. See also Frederick E. Hoxie, "Redefining Indian Education:"Thomas J. Morgan's Program in Disarray, Arizona and the West 24 ( Spring 1982): 5-18.
6
Leonard A. Carlson, Indians, Bureaucrats, and Land:The Dawes Act and the Decline of Indian Farming ( Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981), 30-31.
8
Otis, The Dawes Act, 145-46.
9
Congress revised the Dawes Act several times after 1887 to correct problems. The most significant change, except for leasing, was the allotment of land to both husbands and wives instead of only to heads of families. The new law was needed to prevent wives and their children from being dispossessed when couples divorced. This change was made part of the leasing legislation of 1891. See ibid., 112.
10
26 Stat. 794.
11
Otis, The Dawes Act, 116-23.
13
Roy Gittinger, The Formation of the State of Oklahoma ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939) offers a thorough accounting of the official side of the history of Indian Territory up to statehood. More recent interpretative works include Danney Goble, Progressive Oklahoma:The Making of a New Kind of State ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980) and John Thompson, Closing the Frontier: Radical Response in Oklahoma, 1889-1923 ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986).
14
Muriel H. Wright, A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1951) is a handbook which provides a general background and much information on the individual tribes. Rennard Strickland, The Indians in Oklahoma ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980) emphasizes the Indians' cultural contributions and is useful for the recent period.

-185-

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Indians and the American West in the Twentieth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • The Heritage of Severalty 1
  • The Progressive Era, 1900-17 11
  • Dissolving the Five Civilized Tribes 52
  • The War to Assimilate All Indians 59
  • From War to Depression, 1919-29 71
  • Depression and the New Deal 89
  • World War II the Exodus 107
  • The Postwar Era, 1945-61 123
  • Self-Determination and Red Power - 1960s and 1970s 148
  • The New Indian Wars - Energy, Water, and Autonomy 169
  • Conclusions 182
  • Notes 185
  • Bibliography 213
  • Index 225
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