New Jersey: A Guide to Its Present and Past

By Federal Writers' Project (N.J.) | Go to book overview

Natural Setting

Geography, Topography, and Climate

NEW JERSEY is the fourth smallest State in the Union; only Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island are smaller. It has an area of 8,224 square miles, of which 710 square miles are water surface. The State has an extreme length north and south of 166 miles, and an extreme width cast and west of 57 miles.

With the exception of the 50-mile northern boundary from Hudson River to Delaware River, separating it from New York, the State is entirely surrounded by water, 300 miles of which are navigable. It is bounded west and south by the Delaware River and Delaware Bay, dividing it from Pennsylvania and Delaware. On the east it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Hudson River, Arthur Kill, Kill van Kull, and New York Bay, which separate it from New York.

The State falls naturally into three physical divisions of sharply differentiated scenery. In the north is the mountainous, lake-studded region known as the Appalachian Highlands; in the central, or Triassic section, are gently rolling hills, supporting most of the State's urban and industrial development; and in the large southern Coastal Plain are fruit orchards and market gardens, swamps and pine wastes, miles of beaches and shallow bays.

The Appalachian Highlands section, which extends northwest of a line that might be drawn through Pompton, Morristown, Lebanon and Clinton to Delaware River, includes slightly less than two-fifths of the State's area. Along the northwest border are the level-topped narrow Kittatinny Mountains, which achieve the highest elevation in the State -- 1,805 feet above sea level at High Point. These mountains are part of the Appalachians. Bisecting them is the famous Delaware Water Gap, 900 feet wide at the base and 4,500 feet wide at the top, with sides rising to a height of 1,200 feet or more.

The thickly wooded ridges of this area form a natural park. In Sussex

-7-

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New Jersey: A Guide to Its Present and Past
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Sponsors' Forewords v
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • Illustrations xv
  • Maps xxi
  • General Information xxiii
  • Calendar of Events xxix
  • Part I - New Jersey: the General View 1
  • A New Jersey Silhouette 3
  • Natural Setting 7
  • Archeology and Indians 28
  • History 35
  • Government 55
  • Industry and Commerce 69
  • Labor 79
  • Agriculture 89
  • The Press 110
  • Racial and National Groups 118
  • Folklore and Folkways 126
  • Education 134
  • Religion 142
  • The Arts 151
  • Part II - Cities and Towns 187
  • Atlantic City 189
  • Bayonne 201
  • Bordentown 207
  • Burlington 216
  • Camden 225
  • Elizabeth 238
  • Freehold 250
  • Hackensack 256
  • Hoboken 262
  • Jersey City 270
  • Morristown 283
  • Mount Holly 292
  • New Brunswick 298
  • Newark 312
  • The Oranges and Maplewood 339
  • Passaic 345
  • Paterson 349
  • Perth Amboy 361
  • Princeton 370
  • Salem 390
  • Trenton 398
  • Part III - Tours 415
  • Part IV - Appendices 687
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 705
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