NEW JERSEY is rightly called "The Garden State." Its truck-farms, extending from the northern mountains to the southern plain, are mere garden patches when compared with the western prairies or southern plantations. But these gardens produce a large proportion of the fruits and vegetables consumed in New York and Philadelphia. For these millions as well as for its own, New Jersey has developed exceptionally prosperous small farms and some of the highest types of agricultural specialization.
The State has three main soil and topographical farm belts. Underlain largely with limestone and other glacial rock, the northern counties are hilly and in some places even mountainous. Here dairying and the raising of grains and other field crops predominate, with scattered centers for market gardening. Although found in all sections of the State, commercial poultry farms are concentrated in the northern and central areas.
In the middle counties are fertile loam lands, level or rolling, with a rich subsoil of greensand marl. Of first rank in this section are truck crops and potatoes. Grain, hay, fruits, and milk are secondary.
The southern counties of the level sandy coastal area contain, in addition to a broad expanse of pine barrens, large fertile areas that yield excellent apples, peaches, cranberries, and other small fruits and vegetables. Peach blossoms in Burlington and Cumberland Counties make this section the agricultural show-place of the State in spring.
When the early settlers arrived they found the Indians growing corn, pumpkins, gourds, tobacco, and beans. Taking a lesson from the natives, they cleared the lands, and with the help of seeds and livestock imported from the old country, soon made New Jersey an important agricultural colony.
Although its large wheat yield ranked New Jersey as one of the "bread colonies" before the Revolution, the farmers were already anticipating the present-day variety in products. Large farms had been established in the south on which Negro slaves performed most of the work. This system