Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art: Veinte Siglos de Arte Mexicano

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yet have solidity and grandeur. His "Street Meeting" is a candid commentary of a political moment as he saw it.

Others among the younger generation are the versatile and restless Carlos Orozco Romero (Pl. 126); the ironical Agustin Lazo (Pl. 128); the surrealist Frida Kahlo, with a complex and morbid imagination (Pl. 125); Maria Izquierdo, earthy and vigorous (Pl. 130); jesés Guerrero Galvdn, sensitive and tender (Pl. 131). Among the graphic artists it is necessary to mention the great Leopoldo Méndez (Pl. 143), follower of the tradition of Posada; the engravers Diaz de Leén (Pl. 148) and Ferndndez Ledesma, also a fine painter (Pl. 129); Gonzalo de la Paz Pérez, Everardo Ramirez, Xavier Guerrero, Alvarado Lang, Feliciano Peéa, etc; the lithographers Emilio Amero, maker of fine color prints (Pl. 146), Chcffvez Morado (Pl. 147), Anguiano (Pl. 149), Arenal, Escobedo, Dosamantes (Pl. 150), Gamboa, Pujol, and many others.

Thus the art of Mexico has reached a turbulent maturity, attained only after a dogged struggle against the bonds that held it fast to the decaying cultures of Europe. The artistic liberation of Mexican art runs closely parallel to the social and political liberation of the nation itself, and if the participation of the artists in this struggle had been less whole-hearted, perhaps modern Mexican art would never have shown its present freshness and vigor.

MIGUEL COVARRUBIAS


ARTE MODPRNO

Durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el arte habfa muerto en México. La Guerra de Independencia habia desangrado al pals; la miseria y el desorden crecieron bajo el imperio reaccionario de Iturbide y la dictadura grotesca de Santa Anna. Para revivir la agonizante Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos se importé en 1847 al pintor espaéol Pelegrin Clave, que implanté el uso de modelos vivos, abrié la primera exposicién de arte y encaminé a un grupo de estudiantes por el estrecho sendero de la pintura académica.

En el interior de la Repéblica pintores oscuros, aficionados sin escuela o simples artesanos pintaban por encargo retratos de farrbilia, niéos en su lecho de muerte o apetitosas viandas para las salas o los comedores de la clase media del lugar. Solian pintar también retablos, rétulos, muebles y muros. Su arte tenéa cierto inocente encanto y era de un realismo apasionado y primitivo. Estos pintores casi nunca firmaban sus cuadros y sélo se conservan algunos nombres: José Maria Estrada, famoso por la nimia exactitud de sus retratos (Iém. 109); Jos Maria Uriarte, su maestro; Abundio Rincén, Hermenegildo Bustos, Apolinar Fonseca, pintor de naturalezas muertas (lém. 110), y Francisco de P. Mendoza, especialista en batallas (lém. 111). Todo este arte era de inspiracién popular y revelaba ya el espéritu de la nueva clase media que se iba formando.

Juérez y Maximiliano. Entre tanto los destinos del paés habéan pasado a manos del grupo liberal. Los hombres de la Reforma, influidos, por ideas democréticas y principios positivistas, lucharon contra la Iglesia y la aristocracia. Juérez consolidé el triunfo del liberalismo nacionalizando los hienes del Clero y realizando la separacién de la

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Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art: Veinte Siglos de Arte Mexicano
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Corrections 2
  • Veinte Siglos De Arte Mexicano 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Contents Indice 7
  • Committees · Acknowledgments Comites · Reconocimientos 8
  • Foreword of the Mexican Department of Foreign Affairs 10
  • Preliminar De La Secretaria De Relaciones Exteriores De Mexico 10
  • Foreword of the Museum of Modern Art 11
  • Preliminar Del Museo De Arte Moderno 12
  • Introduction 14
  • Introduccion 17
  • Pre-Spanish Art 23
  • Arte Prehispanico 26
  • Colonial Art 67
  • Arte Colonial 71
  • Folk Art 109
  • Arte Popular 111
  • Modern Art 137
  • Arte Modprno 141
  • Brief Biographies 183
  • Datos Biograficos 190
  • Bibliography Bibliografia 197
  • Pre-Spanish Cultures of Mexic0 *
  • Colonial Art in Mexic0 *
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