The German Age
The evolution of a transportation policy without political controversy is a rarity. National legislatures have spent uncounted hours debating with passion questions of transportation finance, taxation, subsidies, competition between carriers, rights of way, and a host of other problems. Among the most dramatic of these in recent years, especially in the United States, has been the matter of pollution, attributable to some extent to new transportation patterns. The patterns are characterized by a mushrooming number of motor vehicles and the construction of new highways, creating serious ecological and social problems in their wake. In the United States, they are also characterized by an alarming decline in mass urban transit and railroad passenger service. These problems have arisen as a result of insensitive government policy makers, the pressures of transportation associations, and the preferences of users.1 Whether they can be solved in the 'seventies must remain a matter of conjecture.
A major aspect of the new transportation pattern, of central concern in this study, has been the intense competition between railroad and motor carriers for the hauling of freight____________________