As executive power increases in most countries, legislative power declines correspondingly. Since the legislative initiative has passed into the hands of the executive, parliaments "sometimes amend, rarely reject, usually ratify."1 The multiple causes for this relative decline of power are familiar. Crisis situations require swift action, economic and social legislation has become more complex, often involving supranational organizations, and legislators have neither the time nor the staff assistance to draft bills of importance. Only the administrative bureaucracy with its host of experts and its numerous sources of information seems capable of meeting these challenges. It has become the chief source of legislation and of decrees. But despite the shift in power, parliaments still perform the historic and useful functions of serving as a forum for debate, mediating and integrating group claims, gathering information, and acting as a control and check on the executive.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the Parliament was re-established in 1949 along traditional lines, but with some____________________