The Aftermath: Execution of
the Act and New Legislation
Any one act of Parliament, in order to be effective, must be linked to the interrelated administrative (or "output") process. This process consists of policy enforcement, in which a number of executive and administrative regulations, decrees or orders are issued to give effect to the laws. Thus policy and administration are closely interwoven, and provide the executive elite with another opportunity to shape legislation in its image.1 Not surprisingly, therefore, to those directly affected by a law, its administration and enforcement are as crucial as its passage. Whether such policy orientation and administration will survive a change in the political party complexion of the Government and in the growing impact of supranational organizations must be of central concern in this chapter.
In West Germany, as in other countries, the federal or state governments issue a host of executive orders and enabling____________________