Warlord Politics: Conflict and Coalition in the Modernization of Republican China

By Lucian W. Pye | Go to book overview

NOTES

CHAPTER 1
1
Discussions of the attitudes and behavioral patterns of the Chinese peasant are to be found in such anthropological studies as Martin C. Yang, A Chinese Village ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1945); Lin Yüeh-Nwa, The Golden Wing ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1948); Olga Lang, Chinese Society and Family ( New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1946); and, particularly, Francis L. K. Hsü, Under the Ancestors' Shadow ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1948). Hsü, in ch. X, attempts to describe a basic personality configuration based on a modified form of the Linton-Kardiner hypothesis. A traditional study is Arthur H. Smith, Village Life in China ( New York: Revell, 1899).
2
See Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, tr., A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), pp. 333-36.
3
See Ch'ao-ting Chi, Key Economic Areas in Chinese History as Revealed in the Development of Public Works for Water Control ( New York: P. Smith, 1936).
4
For the most complete general study of a secret society (the Triad Society), see J. S. M. Ward and W. G. Sterling, The Hung Society, or the Society of Heaven and Earth ( London: Baskerville Press Ltd., 1925), 2 vols.; see also T'ai-ch'u Liao , "The Ko Lao Hui in Szechuan", Pacific Affairs XX, no. 2 ( June, 1947), 161-73.
5
For a study of the Chinese civil service system, see Pao Chao Hsieh, The Government of China, 1644-1911 ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1925), ch. 6; and Etienne Zi, Pratique des examens littéraires en Chine( The Literary Examination Practice in China) (Variétés Sinologiques) ( Shanghai: Mission Catholique, 1894), no. 5, especially pp. 34-39.

CHAPTER 2
1
For material on the programs and policies of Yüan Shih-k'ai in developing the Peiyang Army, see Wen Kung-chih, "Tsui-chin' San-shih-nien Chung-kuo Chünshih Shih" ( History of Chinese Military Affairs in the Last Thirty Years) ( Shanghai, 1930), 2 vols., vol. 1, book I, pp. 39-60 and vol. 1, book II, pp. 1-14; Shen Chien , "Hsin-hai Ko-ming Ch'ien-hsi Wo-kuo Chih Lu-chun Chi Ch'i Chun-fei"( "The Chinese Army and Its Finances on the Eve of the 1911 Revolution") She-hui K'o-hsiieh ( The Social Sciences) III, no. 2 ( Jan., 1937); Raphael Verbrugge, Yuan Che-k'ai, sa vie, son temps ( Paris, 1904). For the report of a Western observer, see William de la Tour (Lord Charles Beresford), The Break-up of China ( New York and London: Harper, 1899).
2
For discussions of the Chinese armies developed during the Taiping Rebellion, see Lo Erh-kang, Hsiang-chün Hsin-chih ( New Gazetteer of the Hunan Army) ( Shanghai, 1937); W. L. Bales, Tso Tsung-t'ang, Soldier and Statesman of OldChina ( Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1937);

-171-

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Warlord Politics: Conflict and Coalition in the Modernization of Republican China
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vi
  • Preface vii
  • The Place of Warlords in Chinese Politics 3
  • The Sequence of Power Struggles 13
  • The Warlord Organizations 39
  • A Case Study of the Kuominchün 60
  • The Making and Breaking of Alliances 77
  • The Warlords' Balance of Power 94
  • Public Relations and Propaganda 113
  • The Warlords and Cabinet Government 132
  • Intellectuals and Businessmen 154
  • Concluding Remarks 167
  • Notes 171
  • Bibliography 205
  • Index 209
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