CHAPTER EIGHT
The War of 1832 and Stalemate

The excesses of the administration of Vice President Anastasio Bustamante in its pursuit of political order and the growing fears that the central government intended an overall attack against the states to destroy federalism led in 1832 to what may properly be considered Mexico's first civil war, the greatest convulsion of violence between independence in 1821 and the revolution of Ayutla in 1855. Throughout its nearly three years in power, the Bustamante government was considered by radicals and moderates to be tyrannous. The reality of Mexican federalism was no longer in harmony with the ideals expressed in 1823 and 1824, and the federal republic was collapsing.

In the capital, the opposition against Bustamante and his chief minister Lucas Alamán was led by outspoken critics in Congress, namely, Antonio Pacheco Leal, Manuel Crecencio Rejón and Andrés Quintana Roo, as well as by Vicente Rocafuerte, editor of El Fénix de la Libertad, Juan Rodríguez Puebla, and Mariano Riva Palacio, Guerrero's son-in-law. Among the states, Jalisco was the first to make a definitive break with the Bustamante regime. In November 1831, the commandant general of Jalisco, Ignacio Inclán, ordered the arrest and execution of Juan Brambillas, printer of the state of Jalisco's publications, for pamphlets critical of the federal government. Although Brambillas was eventually released, many moderates were convinced that they had to act to defend state sovereignty. The state legislature fled from Guadalajara to the city of Lagos, and Governor Anastasio Cafiedo appealed to other states to assist Jalisco. Zacatecas, Guanajuato, and San Luis Potosí, fearing that the Bustamante regime intended to destroy state sovereignty, pledged their support of Jalisco. Zacatecas, under Governor Francisco García, now had the best- equipped state militia in the republic; with a state population of three

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