Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It

By James Q. Wilson | Go to book overview

determine the NPR's actual effect. In short, even if some details are altered by this and other efforts, the broad picture remains the same.

J.Q.W.


Notes
1.
"Reinventing government" was the title of a popular book that analyzed government deficiencies and proposed new approaches--namely, David Osborne and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government ( Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1992). The authors of the book were involved in the National Performance Review.
2.
What follows draws in part on my essay "Reinventing Public Administration," in PS: Political Science and Politics ( December 1994), pp. 667-673.
3.
"From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less", Report of the National Performance Review, September 7, 1993 ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office), pp. 3, 5.
4.
See pages 121-122, 240-241, and 321.
5.
Here, I follow the account in Steven Kelman, "White House-Initiated Management Change: Implementing Federal Procurement Reform," in James B. Pfiffner, ed., The Managerial Presidency, 2nd ed. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1999), pp. 239-264.
6.
Quoted in Tom Shoop, "Managing Workers of America, Inc.," Government Executive ( July 1993), p. 39.
7.
Here and in the paragraphs that follow, I am indebted to Professor Patricia W. Ingraham. See, especially, her essay, "A Laggard's Tale: Civil Service and Administrative Reform in the United States," Research in Public Administration, vol. 5 ( 1999), pp. 173-187, as well as " Ingraham and James R. Thomson , "The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 and Its Progeny: The Promise and the Dilemma," in Steven W. Hays and Richard Kearney, eds., Issues in Contemporary Public Administration, 3rd. ed. ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1994), pp. 54-56, 72.
8.
Ingraham, "A Laggard's Tale," p. 179.
9.
Ingraham, "A Laggard's Tale," p. 181.
10.
Paul C. Light, Monitoring Government: Inspectors General and the Search for Accountability ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1993), p. 12.
11.
See the debate on this matter between Paul C. Light of the Brookings Institution and Janice Lachance, head of OPM, in Government Executive ( October 1999 and December 1999).
12.
Herbert Kaufman, Red Tape ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1977).

-xvi-

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Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface to the New Edition ix
  • Notes xvi
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • Part I - Organizations 1
  • Chapter 1 - Armies, Prisons, Schools 3
  • Chapter 2 - Organization Matters 14
  • Part II - Operators 29
  • Chapter 3 - Circumstances 31
  • Conclusions 48
  • Chapter 4 - Beliefs 50
  • Conclusions 70
  • Chapter 5 - Interests 72
  • Conclusions 88
  • Chapter 6 - Culture 90
  • Part III - Managers 111
  • Chapter 7 - Constraints 113
  • Chapter 8 - People 137
  • Conclusions 153
  • Chapter 9 - Compliance 154
  • Summary: Achieving Compliance 174
  • Part IV - Executives 177
  • Chapter 10 - Turf 179
  • Conclusions 195
  • Chapter 11 - Strategies 196
  • Conclusions 217
  • Chapter 12 - Innovation 218
  • Part V - Context 233
  • Chapter 13 - Congress 235
  • Appendix - Congressional Dominance: a Closer Look 254
  • Chapter 14 - Presidents 257
  • Chapter 15 - Courts 277
  • Chapter 16 - National Differences 295
  • Part VI - Change 313
  • Chapter 17 - Problems 315
  • Conclusions 331
  • Chapter 18 - Rules 333
  • Chapter 19 - Markets 346
  • Conclusions 363
  • Chapter 20 - Bureaucracy and the Public Interest 365
  • Notes 379
  • Index 409
  • Subject Index 418
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