Anyone laboring for many years on a project such as this acquires many debts to people and institutions. I wish to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to those who have helped me in my work.
It is a pleasure to recall the many courtesies extended to me by the librarians of the Henry E. Huntington Library, the New York Historical Society, the New York State Library, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, the Queens College Library, the Public Record Office, the British Museum, the Institute of Historical Research, the Bodleian Library, the Cambridge University Library, and the libraries of the University of California at Los Angeles and San Diego.
The Graduate School and the History Department of the University of California Los Angeles provided me with the resources to begin this project. I am grateful also to the committee on research of the University of California San Diego and to the Regents of the University for their support which allowed me to complete my research and writing.
I would like to thank the editors of New York History and the New York Historical Society Quarterly for permission to draw upon earlier versions of some of the material in this book published in their journals. I should also like to express my gratitude to the New York State Historical Association and its prize committee that awarded me the association's manuscript award for 1975.
My warmest thanks go to my friends and colleagues who have been so generous with their time and energy. Eugene S. Larson, Mary Beth Norton, Joyce Goodfriend, Andrew Appleby, Roger Daniels, Frances Makkreel, and Linda Mehr have patiently listened to me through the years and just as patiently offered their advice. Michael Kammen and Patricia Bonomi gave me much needed encouragement and shared their special knowledge of New York history. Arthur Joseph Slavin, Joyce Appleby, Stanley Chodorow, Harry N. Scheiber, and David