Once Again Dutch, Once Again English
While brief, the third Anglo-Dutch war was not without effect on New York. A Dutch fleet, intent on sailing home after raiding Virginia, stopped at Sandy Hook. Dutch farmers quickly boarded the vessels, appealing to the commanders to lift the English yoke from their shoulders, and a brief, bloodless attack made New York New Netherland once again. Unfortunately for the Dutch colonists, they were a piece on the international chessboard. England and the Netherlands sought a quick end to the war and when the treaty of Westminster was signed in 1674, New Netherland was a pawn the Netherlands quickly surrendered. York was restored to his proprietary and he now embarked upon a policy of more vigorous administration. This policy was personified in the dominating figure of the new governor, Edmund Andros, whose actions had a lasting effect on New York's political and social structure.
The Treaty of Breda proved to be more of a truce than a permanent peace. After the second Anglo-Dutch war a rapprochement occurred between the Netherlands and England. Under the guiding hand of Sir William Temple, this culminated in 1668 in the formation of the Triple Alliance between these two Protestant nations and Sweden. King Charles, however, soon slipped back into his normal allegiances and secretly signed the Treaty of Dover with France on 1 June 1670. In return for funding from King Louis, he turned England away from Dutch toward French interests; thereafter relations between England and the Netherlands deteriorated quickly until a new war was declared. As in 1665, it was Sir Robert Holmes