CHAPTER 1
Introduction

The demands made by the German Communist party (KPD) upon its intellectuals underwent a sweeping revision during the bolshevization of the party in the twenties. The KPD had no compelling reason any more to call upon the intellectuals for theoretical analyses of current events because ideology and its translation into political action was no longer the preponderant issue by the end of the decade. Policies having increasingly little to do with pristine doctrine were prescribed to the KPD by the Communist International in accordance with Soviet state interests as Stalin defined them, and the German Communists now counted upon their intellectuals to come up with the ideological rationalization for these largely imposed political programs. Theoretical discussion and inner-party criticism degenerated largely into haggling over comparatively irrelevant doctrinal fine points already so constricted by calcified obsessions with "right" and "left" deviations that meaningful debate was out of the question. Conflicts and scandals within the party went on, but this kind of discord, though those involved invariably couched their arguments in doctrinal terms, often arose only because select political functionaries had already been marked as targets after having lost a behind- the-scenes fight over some strategical-tactical issue. To add to the confusion, disagreements of this sort were often so snarled in private animosities that it was impossible to tell quarrels based on genuine policy differences from controversies originating in personal feuds and rivalries.

In this entire process, most of the party's original intellectuals lost any hope of influencing policy based on their notion of correct theory. Now they were expected to slip into a new role as apologists responsible for thinking up the ideological phrases legitimizing the current line. In the face of this challenge to the qualities that made them intellectuals in the first

-3-

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Lukacs and Brecht
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgnents xvii
  • Part One - Lukács 1
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 3
  • Chapter 2 - Excursus the Philosophy Debate 15
  • Chapter 3 - Moscow, 1930-1931 24
  • Chapter 4 - Interlude 42
  • Chapter 5 - Berlin, 1931-1933 53
  • Chapter 6 - Lukács' Theory of Fascism, Part I 72
  • Chapter 7 - The ImpasseLukács' Theory of Fascism, Part 2 103
  • Chapter 8 - Lukács in Soviet Exile, 1933-1939 119
  • Chapter 9 - The Dialectic of Reality 156
  • Chapter 10 - Conclusion 176
  • Part - Two Brecht 193
  • Chapter 11 - The Victim 195
  • Chapter 12 - The Apologist 222
  • Chapter 13 - The Dialectician 245
  • Notes 261
  • Bibliography 323
  • Index 333
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