|• ||The numbers of foster home children increased. There was a rapidly growing backlog
of children removed from custody of parent(s) but not yet placed in a foster home.|
The foregoing underscores the number and extent of economic, social, and
others ills threatening the nation's youth in the first half of the 1990s. Taken
together, they mean that from a fifth to a quarter of the below-18 population,
including especially large proportions of black and Hispanic youth, are vulnerable
in varying degrees to physical or personal failure or to work lives that produce
far less than optimal results, both for the individual and for American society.
From the standpoints of social conscience, national policy, and international
competitiveness, this is a present and future weakness that might appear to many
as both unaffordable and unforgivable.
To all of the above must be added the specific shortcomings in institutional
structures and processes in the delivery of health and educational services that
affect the quality of life and employability of youth. Those are examined in the
Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Reducing Poverty Among Children, Appendix A, "Measuring Poverty," May 1985, 149-73. See also Garfinkel, I. (ed.), IncomeTested Transfer Programs: The Case For and Against ( New York: Academic Press, 1982), 12-14; Bureau of the Census, Alternative Methods for Valuing Selected In-Kind
Transfer Benefits and Measuring Their Effect on Poverty, Technical Paper 50, March 1982, 28-31, 38-44, 58-69, 127-34; Danziger,
Gottschalk, P., "The
Measurement of Poverty: Implications for Antipoverty Policy," Discussion Paper No. 709-82 ( Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty [IRP], 1982); Ruggles, P., "Measuring Poverty," Focus (published by IRP) 14, no. 1, Spring 1992, 1-9; Congress,
House Committee on Ways and Means, Background Material and Data on Programs
Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means, May 7, 1991, 1167-68.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "Measuring the Effect of
Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty: 1989", Current Population Reports, Consumer
Income, Series P-60, no. 169RD, September 1990, 1.
Bureau of the Census, Measuring the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and
Poverty: 1990, Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, no. 176RD,
Tables 2, 3, August 1991, 1-17, 40-55.
Bureau of the Census, Release CB-91-288, September 26, 1991, 3 (emphasis
CBO, The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 1993-1997, January 1992, 14.
Bureau of the Census, "Poverty in the United States: 1990", Current Population
Reports -- Consumer Income, P-60, no. 175, Tables 2-4, 10, 14, August 1991, 1-14, 16-23, 84-87.
7. Ibid., 8-9
. See also Danziger, Sheldon, "Anti-Poverty Policy and Welfare Reform," paper prepared for Rockefeller Foundation Conference on Welfare Reform, Williamsburg, VA, February 16-18, 1988; Danziger, S., and
Gottschalk, P., "Work, Poverty and the Working Poor: A Multifaceted Problem,"