An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898

By John L. Offner | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 12
PRELIMINARIES
TO PEACE

The Spanish-American War was short; it lasted only sixteen weeks, from 21 April to 12 August. Both the United States and Spain wanted a short war and had limited objectives, which encouraged early peace negotiations. The McKinley administration was determined to remove Spain from Cuba and Puerto Rico and to minimize European influence in the region. After the Manila Bay victory, the United States became interested in Pacific acquisitions. The Spanish government hoped its armed forces would uphold Spanish honor by bloodying the Yankees, but it expected to lose Cuba. To prevent the insurgents from taking vengeance on Spanish subjects, Spain anticipated ceding the island, together with its debt, to the United States. Madrid did not want to lose any other colonies, and it continued to seek European backing.

The Cuban Republic stood on the sidelines during the war. Washington held the Junta at arm's length, never consulting it about peace objectives or negotiations, and initial military cooperation on the island rapidly broke down. Quesada encountered the McKinley administration's frosty attitude in May when he attempted to deliver a letter from Gómez to McKinley. Day would not see him if he came on "official" business; Adee refused to take the envelope because it was addressed to "The Secretary

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An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Chapter 1 the Cuban Revolution Three Perspectives 1
  • Chapter 2 Cuba, Cleveland, and Cánovas 17
  • Chapter 3 Mckinley and Cánovas 37
  • Chapter 4 the Woodford Mission 54
  • Chapter 5 Sagasta's Cuban Reforms 68
  • Chapter 6 Failure of Cuban Reforms 86
  • Chapter 7 Two Shocks the De Lôme Letter and the Maine Disaster 111
  • Chapter 8 Backdrop for Diplomacy 127
  • Chapter 9 Failure to Solve the Crisis 143
  • Chapter 10 Spanish Suspension of Hostilities 159
  • Chapter 11 Descent into War 177
  • Chapter 12 Preliminaries to Peace 194
  • Chapter 13 the Peace Protocol 209
  • Chapter 14 Conclusion 225
  • Appendix 237
  • Notes 239
  • Bibliography 279
  • Index 297
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