The World Trade Organization and the Environment

By P. K. Rao | Go to book overview

various environmental groups and labour unions added to the complexity of consensus building on any major issue. The developing countries did not evince inclination to support some of the proposals on environmental and labour standards for fear that these would lead to disguised trade protectionism in the developed countries.

The WTO charter and its preamble provide guidance to derive pragmatic multilateral trade policies consistent with environmental preservation and sustainable development. The member countries as well as the WTO Secretariat need to undertake necessary analyses and devise mechanisms to ensure a fair and equitable global trading regime. Such efforts can lead to confidence building for all the members and enable a reasonable consensus. It is also useful to realize that much of the debate on trade and development in the WTO framework (and under the GATT 1947 framework earlier) has been narrowly focused in terms of trade and developing countries, or in terms of developed and developing countries. This was also evident from the WTO High Level Symposium on Trade and Development held in Geneva during March 1999. Most of the modern concepts and approaches for development and sustainable development are still missing in their integration with multilateral trade mechanisms under the WTO charter. Several ingredients relevant for strengthening the framework are enunciated in this book within the context of trade-environment sustainable development.


References

GATT ( 1990) GATT Document MTN.GNG/NG7/W/75 (1 Nov. 1990), in WTO (1999).

Gollin, M. A. ( 1991) "Using intellectual property to improve environmental protection", Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, 4, 193-235.

Nichols, P. M. ( 1997) "Outlawing transnational bribery through the World Trade Organization", Law and Policy in International Business, 28. 2, 305-81.

Nordstrom, H. and S. Vaughan ( 1999) Trade and Environment, WTO special study #4, Geneva: WTO Secretariat.

Quereshi, A. H. ( 1995) "Some lessons from developing countries' trade policy reviews in the GATT framework — an enforcement perspective", The World Economy, 18. 3, 489-504.

Rao, P. K. ( 1999) Sustainable Development — Economics and Policy, Oxford & Boston: Blackwell Publishers.

WTO ( 1999) Background Document WTO High Level Symposium on Trade and Environment (15-16 March 1999), Geneva: WTO Secretariat.

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The World Trade Organization and the Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures x
  • List of Boxes xi
  • Preface and Acknowledgements xiii
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • Part I - Background 1
  • 1 - Global Trade Regimes 3
  • 1.5 - Concluding Observations 25
  • Appendix II - Gatt 1994 26
  • Appendix III - Regional Trade Regimes 27
  • References 28
  • 2 - Trade, Environment and Development 31
  • References 52
  • 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements 55
  • References 70
  • Part II - The World Trade Organization 73
  • 4 - Wto Articles of Agreement and Beyond 75
  • Appendix Ii: Wto Structure 90
  • Appendix Iii: Agreement on Tbt 91
  • References 93
  • 5 - Trade Policies and Environmental Provisions 95
  • Appendix I - Committee on Trade and Environment 114
  • Appendix II Extract of the Sps Agreement 115
  • References 117
  • 6 - Dispute Resolution Mechanisms 119
  • Appendix I - The Dispute Settlement Panel Process 132
  • Appendix II - Trade Disputes on Bananas 133
  • References 136
  • Part III - Policy Implications 139
  • 7 - International Trade and Environment: an Integration 141
  • References 162
  • 8 - New Role for the Wto 165
  • References 176
  • 9 - Towards a Better Future 177
  • References 181
  • Index 183
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