ELLIS AND JASPER HEYWOOD
ARELATED PATTERN of frustrated, irenic hopes turning into futile opposition to Protestantism in England is seen in the harshly wrenched careers of the next generation of Heywoods. Ellis Heywood, John Heywood's first son, received his early education at Court, then studied at Oxford during the reign of Edward VI. He was elected a fellow of All Souls College in 1548 and graduated Bachelor of Canon Law in 1552. Shortly after that, he left England for Italy in order to join Cardinal Reginald Pole in exile, serving as the Cardinal's secretary. 1 Heywood's academic career and adherence to Pole provide significant illustration of his family's political tendencies as Catholic humanists descended from Sir Thomas More.
By 1535 More and Pole were the two most distinguished humanists in England. Both had studied Greek under Linacre and Latimer, famous fellows of All Souls College. By the mid-1530s, both had recoiled from the emerging ideological implications of King Henry's program to reform the English Church. Implicitly repudiating the program eventually implemented by Thomas Cromwell, More chose imprisonment and Pole chose exile. In exile, Pole, a cousin to the King, gradually came to embody the ideal of honor for the ancient Catholic nobility. Ellis Heywood's serving as Pole's secretary in exile confirmed the trend of his family's thought and action in the line of Sir Thomas More.
As he briefly shared Pole's exile, Heywood probably shared Pole's distress over the course of the Council of Trent in hardening confessional lines by adopting dogmatic formulations. Pole had been most at odds with the champion of orthodoxy at Trent, Cardinal Giampietro Carafa. Even before Carafa became Pope Paul IV in 1555, he put consid