and arbitrary. A man who had begun his second term seemingly unassailable was now in disgrace and out of office. 41
The covert nature of the Watergate scandal mirrored in some respects the style of diplomacy that Nixon and his closest adviser, Henry Kissinger, brought to the White House. This is not to say that secret activities, bypassing normal channels of decision-making, had not taken place, for example, in Johnson's or Kennedy's administration, but the Nixon White House brought a refinement, pursuing calculated tactics for developing policy and carrying it out in a way that centralized diplomatic authority in the White House; this administration used "back‐ channel" negotiations outside the purview of traditional institutions (including the State Department and the United Nations), did things in secret, and attempted to deal with the world unilaterally rather than multilaterally.
The Nixon administration's style of diplomacy has drawn considerable criticism. 42 The president's reliance on trusted staff members, particularly Kissinger, resulted in secret diplomacy often bypassing an out-of-the-loop State Department, headed by William Rogers. Enthusiasm for secrecy, covert action, and manipulation seemed to bring the president and his national security adviser together. 43 Kissinger, with the president's concurrence, quickly established himself in the White House as the main focus for foreign relations. His____________________