Council. Its first veto was cast against the admission of Bangladesh following the India-Pakistan war. Furthermore, it participated quietly yet responsibly in various UN-related conferences on disarmament, development, the environment, terrorism, the seabed, and finances. And, as Nixon himself pointed out many years later, China cooperated with the United States in many instances, including, crucially, by not using its veto in the Security Council during the Persian Gulf War of 1991, when George Bush was president. 78 John Stoessinger has evaluated China's role in the United Nations in this way: "China's entry into the United Nations signifies the first time in her history that she has been compelled to deal with other states on the basis of sovereign equality." 79 The realist Richard Nixon would surely find that assessment agreeable, for, if true, it highlights a consummation of his carefully timed China policy.
The Middle East has been a high-profile foreign policy concern for the United States, and for the United Nations, since the establishment of Israel in 1948. Because of the realist demeanor of Nixon's diplomacy, however, the American approach to this volatile area was more than subtly different from that of the immediately preceding period. Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson had avoided American overinvolvement in the region. Not until the denouement of the 1967 war had demonstrated the centrality of the area to the Soviet-American confrontation did the United States seek to manipulate events in the Middle East directly. Every president prior to Nixon had hoped to leave the management of Middle East issues to the United Nations. By the time the Nixon-Ford years had ended, some three years after the pause in the 1973 Middle East war, Secretary of State Kissinger had engineered a military disengagement between the Egyptians and the Israelis on the Sinai peninsula ( January 1974) and a similar agreement between the Israelis and the Syrians on the Golan Heights ( May 1974). On September 4, 1975, in Geneva, Kissinger successfully cobbled together an acceptable buffer zone in the Sinai, originally to be maintained by U.S. civilian technicians stationed between the antagonists. The exhausting "shuttle diplomacy" that Kissinger used to bring about these modest but important steps, and to provide "good offices" for adversaries unwilling____________________