To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations

By John Allphin Moore Jr.; Jerry Pubantz | Go to book overview

consensus in the Security Council. By January 1993 George Bush had moved from his earlier cynical view of the United Nations to the perspectives of its founders.


President Clinton:
The New Moralism and the Demands of Politics

Ironically, popular support for the United Nations diminished after the extraordinary victory in the Persian Gulf. The realization that Saddam Hussein would remain in power and that a lengthy military commitment by the United States and the UN would be needed in the area tarnished the American image of the predicted new world order. The new responsibility of protecting Iraq's minority populations from the central government, the inability of UN inspectors to eliminate Baghdad's military arsenals, and the high costs of a permanent security shield contributed to the rapid diminution of approval ratings for Bush's UN policy.

The quick emergence of other international problems in the wake of the war also diminished the willingness of Americans to pursue an activist agenda. With growing ethnic and political strife in Yugoslavia, the states of the former Soviet Union, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Caribbean, the electorate sensed that there might not be acceptable, affordable multilateral solutions. The turning point in public opinion came with the overthrow of the democratically elected Haitian government in September 1991. In spite of U.S. condemnations and its efforts to obtain OAS and UN measures against the leaders of the military coup, the Bush administration found little domestic support for "Gulf-style" actions to remove the objectionable regime. Additionally, the Haitian crisis produced a flood of refugees to the United States, which reinforced the public sentiment that we should stay out of Haiti's political upheaval.

The motivations of and possibilities for American multilateral leadership based on liberal democratic internationalism were being overtaken by domestic politics. George Bush, "unbeatable" in the spring of 1991, found voters increasingly preoccupied with domestic affairs. An apparent recession, coupled with a large budget deficit, refocused Americans away from Bush's successes in foreign policy. There was also a desire to enjoy the fruits of victory in the cold war. Many sought less commitment to world leadership and a reemphasis on solving problems at home. The historically recurrent theme of isolationism experienced a

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To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • To Create a New World? *
  • Table of Contents *
  • Preface *
  • Frequently Used Citations *
  • Introduction *
  • 1: To Create a New World? American "Exceptionalism" and the Origins of the United Nations *
  • Dismissing the United Nations 7
  • The United Nations at Half Century 10
  • Woodrow Wilson and American Idealism 12
  • Traditional Arrangements of International Politics 17
  • The Twentieth-Century Crisis 21
  • 2: The Founders *
  • Fdr and the Un *
  • Yalta 44
  • Truman and the Un 47
  • Onset of the Cold War 53
  • Korea 69
  • 3: The Cold Warriors *
  • The President, His Foreign Policy Team, and the Un 84
  • The "Eisenhower Model" 91
  • Superpower Confrontation and the United Nations, 1953-1969 95
  • Cold War Tensions and UN Institutions 112
  • Jfk and the Un 118
  • Lyndon Johnson and the Un 131
  • Disarmament and Development 143
  • 4: The Realists' Ascent *
  • Nixon and the Un 176
  • 1968 184
  • Nixon and Watergate 186
  • "Nixinger" Diplomacy 188
  • Vietnam and Nixon 193
  • India and Pakistan, 1971 196
  • China 199
  • Yom Kippur 203
  • President Ford's Interregnum 208
  • 5: Two Sides of Idealism *
  • Carter and Foreign Policy 214
  • Carter, Human Rights, and the Un 219
  • Carter, China, and the Ussr 229
  • Breakthrough at Camp David 234
  • Carter and Africa 241
  • The Iranian Hostage Nightmare 248
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase One 254
  • The Middle East, Reagan, and the Un 262
  • Reagan and the World 268
  • Iran-Contra 274
  • Gorbachev 276
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase Two 280
  • 6: The New Moralists *
  • President Bush's UN Odyssey 290
  • President Bush's Use of the Un 298
  • President Clinton: the New Moralism and the Demands of Politics 315
  • Conclusion *
  • Appendix a Secretaries-General of the Un *
  • Appendix B U.S. Ambassadors to the Un *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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