Cleverland was not as happy in his conduct of Foreign Affairs as he was in domestic matters. The management of the Hawaiian business by himself and his Secretary of State, Walter Q. Gresham, reflected no credit on the country, but it may be better considered when the story reaches the annexation of what were known in our school geographies as the Sandwich Islands.
The Venezuelan controversy belongs entirely to his administration and the conduct of that and the Chicago riots gave him the most satisfaction of all the events of his public life. Again, to his content, he was associated with Richard Olney, who on Gresham's death had become Secretary of State early in June 1895. Any expression of dissent must be stated with diffidence as Cleveland and Olney were powerful statesmen who knew intimately all the relevant facts and conditions and whose conduct of the affair is of itself a presumption in their favor. Doing my best to see things as they saw them I have been unable to agree with their conclusions.
In 1841 a dispute arose between Venezuela and Great Britain concerning the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana and, though interrupted by thirty years of revolution in the South American country, continued to reassert itself in desultory fashion up to Cleveland's first administration. It had the characteristics of most boundary disputes. Both countries displayed a