convenient cross-border sanctuary. Politically marginalized and bereft of either patron or safe haven, the RAF finally collapsed in 1992 under the weight of its own exhaustion and the indifference of those in the newly united Germany whom the group still purported to represent.

Thus, of the four radical movements that only a decade ago attempted collectively to realize the revolution that they believed was inevitable, none remains. Yet, more than thirty years after its founding, the PLO -- though still short of its ultimate goal of true sovereignty over a bona fide Palestinian state -- has nonetheless survived expulsions and dislocations, internal rivalry and external enmity, to continue the struggle begun long ago in an equally transformed political environment.


Conclusion

The PLO, as a terrorist movement, is arguably unique in history. Not only was it the first truly 'international' terrorist organization, it also consistently embraced a far more internationalist orientation than most other terrorist groups. Some accounts suggest that by the early 1980s at least forty different terrorist groups -- from Asia, Africa, North America, Europe and the Middle East -- had been trained by the PLO at its camps in Jordan, Lebanon and the Yemen, among other places. The Palestinians' purpose in this tutelary role was not entirely philanthropic. The foreign participants in these courses were reportedly charged between $5,000 and $10,000 each for a six-week programme of instruction. In addition, many of them were later recruited to participate in joint operations alongside Palestinian terrorists. Thus, according to Israeli defence sources, the PLO in 1981 had active cooperative arrangements with some twenty-two different terrorist organizations that had previously benefited from Palestinian training, weapons supply and other logistical support. 35

The PLO was also one of the first terrorist groups actively to pursue the accumulation of capital and wealth as an organizational priority. By the mid-1980s, it was estimated to have established an annual income flow of some $600 million, of which some $500 million was derived from investments. 36 The amassing of so vast a fortune is all the more astonishing given the fact that, when the PLO was established in 1964, it had no funds, no infrastructure and no real direction. It was not until Arafat's election as chairman in 1968 that the PLO started to become the

-84-

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Inside Terrorism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Preface 7
  • Abbreviations 11
  • 1 - Defining Terrorism 13
  • 2 - The Post-Colonial Era: Ethno-Nationalist/Separatist Terrorism 45
  • Conclusion 64
  • 3 - The Internationalization of Terrorism 67
  • Conclusion 84
  • 4 - Religion and Terrorism 87
  • Conclusion 127
  • 5 - Terrorism, the Media and Public Opinion 131
  • Conclusion 154
  • 6 - The Modern Terrorist Mindset: Tactics,Targets and Technologies 157
  • Conclusion 183
  • 7 - Terrorism Today and Tomorrow 185
  • Bibliography 248
  • Index 279
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