The Columbia History of Western Philosophy

By Richard H. Popkin | Go to book overview

7
Nineteenth-Century Philosophy

INTRODUCTION

The nineteenth century dawned as one of the greatest disruptions in European history was taking place. The effects of the French Revolution were felt everywhere, and Napoleon's consequent invasions created turmoil from Russia in the east to England, Spain, Portugal, and Italy and had major effects in the German states, Scandinavia, and the Netherlands. The fall of the Napoleonic Empire in 1815 led to decades of attempts to restore European stability. The revolutions of 1848 and the drive to unify Germany and Italy further changed the societies of Europe. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 led to the emergence of a unified German Prussian state as a major force in Europe. Throughout the century, the development of industrial capitalism and the fruits of imperialism also changed the nature of Western societies, leading in England, France, and Germany to extensions of democracy and improvements in education. Also, throughout the century the significance of the emergence of the new United States of America played a role, in part as a refuge for victims of European societies, in part as a place where new experiments in living could take place. The American Civil War, the first modern war, unfortunately set the stage for the bloody world wars that followed in the twentieth century.

Philosophical developments took place in the midst of these events, and many of the philosophers considered here played roles in these social and political movements. We will consider the history of nineteenth-century philosophy in terms of the philosophical views set forth in Germany, France, England, and America. Most of the attention of this chapter will be devoted to what occurred in Germany because of the originality, impact,

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The Columbia History of Western Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Columbia History of Western Philosophy *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction xv
  • Contributors xxi
  • The Columbia History of Western Philosophy *
  • 1 - Origins of Western Philosophic Thinking 1
  • 2 - Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy 140
  • 3 - Medieval Christian Philosophy 219
  • 4 - The Renaissance 279
  • 5 - Seventeenth-Century Philosophy 329
  • 6 - Eighteenth-Century Philosophy 422
  • 7 - Nineteenth-Century Philosophy 516
  • 8 - Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy 604
  • 9 - Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy 667
  • Epilogue 755
  • Epilogue - On the History of Philosophy 757
  • Index of Names 779
  • Index of Subject 801
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