challenge of globalization by constructing a new democratic framework based not on the nation-state but on a democratic structure with global reach. David Held, for example, envisions a cosmopolitan democracy in which people have multiple citizenships: "They would be citizens of their immediate political communities, and of the wider regional and global networks which impacted upon their lives."34
The idea of multiple citizenship indicates the magnitude of the challenge to democracy contained in processes of globalization. Remember the precondition for democracy spelled out by Rustow in Chapter 2: People must have no doubt or mental reservation about which political community they belong to. Contrast this with the notion of multiple citizenship, in which people are citizens of local, national, regional, and supraregional communities. Cosmopolitan democracy is very different from the democracy in an independent country. And we have only begun to speculate about democracy in a global setting. Globalization, then, presents a profound challenge to democracy, especially in the developed, industrialized parts of the world--which are also the most touched by processes of globalization.
In short, the process of democratization must continually face and respond to new problems. A democracy can never be taken for granted, not even in those parts of the world where it appears to be the most firmly entrenched.
The discussion about the meaning of democracy in Chapter 1 formed the basis for our assessment of the processes of democratization under way in many countries and for our examination of the possible domestic and international consequences of democracy. A basic dilemma was identified at the beginning: The democratic openings we have seen are a mere beginning; by no means do they ensure further democratization or additional benefits in the form of economic development, peace, and cooperation. Each of the main chapters in this book has focused on a particular aspect of this dilemma: the processes of democratization in Chapter 2, the consequences for economic development and human rights in Chapter 3, and the consequences for peace among nations in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, the future of democracy and democratization was evaluated against the framework of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario. If our final assessment leans toward the pessimistic scenario, we may do well to remember a fundamental lesson learned in recent years: The future is not predetermined; expected patterns of development can be fundamentally changed by the actions of individuals and groups on both the local and the na-