Gender Equity I
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY FOR ATHLETES
The Olympic Games must be reserved for men…. [We] must continue to try to achieve the following definition: the solemn and periodic exaltation of male athleticism, with internationalism as a base, loyalty as a means, art for its setting, and female applause as its reward.
—Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympic Games
The costs of Title IX and the entry of women into the big time should not be blamed for today's highly publicized financial problems for college sports. At the heart of the problem is an addiction to lavish spending.
—Walter Byers, Executive Director of the NCAA, 1951–87
JENNIFER Baldwin Cook played on the women's ice hockey team at Colgate University from 1987 through 1990. 1 In 1990, the women's team went to the national championship and made it to the finals. Yet the university did not believe that Jennifer's team was worthy of its support.
The women's hockey team at Colgate was organized in 1978 as a club, rather than a varsity sport. Club status meant that the team members had to self-finance the team, rather than receive funding from the athletic department budget. The twenty-eight women skaters did not receive athletic aid. They had to buy their own equipment, including skates, sticks, gloves, mouthguards, and tape. They had to pay to have their skates sharpened. Each paid a $25 club fee, plus an average of $400 for equipment.
The female hockey team was assigned a 20-square-foot area in a locker room which they had to share with two other women's teams. They were allowed to use the rink for an hour and a half four times a week to practice in the evening, unless the male team had a game or a local city team had a game.